African American

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Introduction:
In our communities today, African Americans have moved away from the theory of ensuring all are able and educated to take care of self. What happened along the way? African American slaves were free of mind but bodies were enslaved. Now that our bodies are free but it seems our minds are enslaved. Mary McLeod Bethune, born to former slaves in 1875, is known for her contributions in black communities. Bethune committed her life to educating African American on the right to freedom and education. She believed through education African Americans could determine their own destiny in an racially equal society. The strength and power she exhibited in the African American community ensured no one would be left behind without a chance in life. Civil right leaders devoted their lives for equality. A number of issues which plague African Americans have their roots dating back to slavery and the post-Civil War Reconstruction Era and are becoming more noticeable in our communities today. There is significant poverty and crime due to lack of education. Families are being destroyed because we have been oppressed by the Jim Crow laws . In many of the southern states during slavery and after the Civil War, slaves was discouraged by their former masters from becoming educated. Mainly because education was opposite with the institution of slavery and would eventually lead to failure . From the perspective of the slave masters, if African Americans were given access to education, they could possibly start thinking and acting on their own, and an uprising was foreseeable. Advocates of slavery in the state of Maryland would be required to accept the reality that slaves or freedmen were in fact not incapable or inferior in absorbing education. The slaves desired the exact same freedoms as whites but, the whites were unwilling to accept the facts . In some states such as Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, for example, Blacks were able to educate themselves. If whites were caught teaching African Americans how to read and write, they were subject to fines and possibly imprisoned. If slaves were caught, the punishment was far more harsh. Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources:

Feagin, Joe R. and Sikes, Melvin P. – “Living with Racism: The Black Middle-Class Experience”, Acon Press, 1994 The book provides a thorough examination of common stereotyping of prejudice and discrimination. The author describes in detail the minor acts in which African American are subjected. The book includes a number of social issues such as bitterness and despair in the souls of African Americans.

Branch, Taylor – “Parting the Waters: America in the King Years 1954-63”, Touchstone Book, 1989 The author provides a thorough examination of America during the time of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Civil Rights Era. The book reveals a portrait of Dr. King as he was haunted by blackmail, factionalism, and hatred. The book discusses the nonviolent movement as a dramatic force in history. The book provides relevant information relating to my research on racial issues within the African American community.

West, Cornel – “Race Matters”, Vintage 1994
Cornel West’s book provides a thorough examination of new Black conservatism and the strained relations in the Black community. The author addresses a range of issues from the crisis in Black leadership and myths surrounding affirmative action. The book includes a passion grounded in the tradition of the African American church.

Ward, Jerry W, Jr, and Graham, Maryemma – “The Cambridge History of African American Literature” Cambridge University Press 2011 The book provides you with four hundred years of black writing and comprehensive overview of the literary traditions, oral and print, of African-descended peoples in the United States. The contributors, drawn from the United States and beyond, emphasize the dual nature of each text discussed as a work of art created by an individual and as a...
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