Africa and the Atlantic World

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Chapter 26 –Africa and the Atlantic World
PROLOGUE
* Thomas Peters escaped to Nova Scotia and promoted estab. of a colony for former slaves. * He connected the lands of the Atlantic Ocean Basin and was the leader of the black community. * Sub Saharan states had kinship groups like their Bantu-speaking predecessors. African Politics and Society in Early Modern Times

* Regional kingdoms replaced imperial states of w. Africa b/c people organized their societies to take advantage of Atlantic and trans-Saharan commerce. * East African city states fell under domination of Portuguese merchant mariners The States of West Africa and East Africa

* Earliest kingdom: Ghana. Controlled and taxed trade in gold and gained resources for army. * In 13th cent, Mali replaced Ghana as the top power in west Africa. * Songhay emerged in the 15th cent to take its place as the dominant power. * Based in Gao, Songhay rulers built a flourishing city state. The ruler was Sunni Ali. * Brought Timbuktu & Jenne under his control. Used their wealth to dominate Cntrl Niger Valley. * Sunni ‘s accomplishments were:

* Built an elaborate admin and military apparatus to oversee affairs in his realm. * Appointed governors to oversee provinces and made a hierarchy of command for that turned his army into an effective military force. * Created imperial navy to patrol the Niger River, which was an important commercial highway in the Songhay * Military enabled Sunni’s successors to extend authority into Sahara, Lake Chad, and Niger R. * Gao had 75,000 residents, prosperous land/ Many participated in profitable trade. * The emperors were all Muslims:

* Supported mosques
* Built schools to teach the Quran
* Maintained Islamic University at Timbuktu
* Songhay dominated west Africa for most of 16th century. It was the last of the great imperial grassland states. * A Moroccan army opened fire on the Songhay military and forces withered under the attack. * When Song crumbled, series of small regional kingdoms and city states emerged in W. Africa. * Kanem Borno dominated region around Lake Chad. Hausa people estab. city states to the west. * Diula, Mande, and others estab. series of states that entered relations w/ Euro merchants. * While regional states displaced Songhay empire, Swahili city states fell on hard times. * Vasco da Gama skirmished local forces @ Mozambique and Mombasa. * Portuguese forces built admin centers but didn’t succeed in effort to control trade in E. Africa. The Kingdoms of Central Africa and South Africa

* As trade networks multiplied and linked all regions of Sub-Saharan Africa, and increasing volume of commerce encouraged state building in central Africa and South Africa. * Central Africa’s principal states: Kongo, Ndongo, Luba, and lunda. * Best known was Kongo: Had lots of written records and centralized state. * In 1483, Portug fleet scouted the estuary of the Congo River and initiated relations w/ Kongo. * W/in a few yrs, Port merchants estab. close political & diplomatic relations with Kings of Kongo. * Supplied the kings with advisors

* Provided a military garrison to support the kings and protect Portuguese interests * Brought tailors, shoemakers, masons, miners, and priests to Kongo * Kongo kings converted to Christianity as a way to become closer with Portuguese monarchy. * The new faith was convenient b/c the saints of the RC church were similar to priests in the Kongolese religion. * King Afonso I became a devout R. Catholic & encouraged his subjects to Christianity. * He attended religious services and studied the Bible zealously. * Mbanza (Kongo capital) had so many churches, it was called Kongo of the Bell. * Relations with Portugal brought wealth and foreign recognition to Kongo. * Eventually also led to the destruction of the kingdom and estab. of...
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