Copyright 2004 by the American Psychological Association 0021-9010/04/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.89.4.661
Affect and Job Satisfaction: A Study of Their Relationship at Work and at Home Timothy A. Judge
University of Florida
Michigan State University
The authors investigated 2 broad issues: (a) across- and within-individual relationships between mood and job satisfaction and (b) spillover in moods experienced at work and at home. Using an experiencesampling methodology, they collected multisource data from a sample of 74 working individuals. Multilevel results revealed that job satisfaction affected positive mood after work and that the spillover of job satisfaction onto positive and negative mood was stronger for employees high in trait-positive and trait-negative affectivity, respectively. Results also revealed that the effect of mood at work on job satisfaction weakened as the time interval between the measurements increased. Finally, positive (negative) moods at work affected positive (negative) moods experienced later at home.
Kuhn (1970) argued that much scientific progress is not the result of a steady accumulation of knowledge. Rather, scientific revolutions take place in which one paradigm is replaced by another. Although it might be hyperbole to argue that a revolution is underway in job attitudes research, it can be argued that a paradigm shift is afoot. Researchers have long accepted Locke’s (1969) classic definition of job satisfaction, which incorporates both cognitive (“an appraisal of one’s job” [p. 317]) and affective (“emotional state” [p. 317]) elements. From the perspective of basic attitude research, this acceptance is well-founded given the classic separation of attitudes into cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions (Eagley & Chaiken, 1993). A great deal of work on the antecedents of job satisfaction has focused on relatively cognitive models. Locke’s (1969) value– percept model, for example, involves a rational appraisal of the degree to which the job supplies outcomes that satisfy an individual’s values. The Cornell model involves a comparison of job outcomes with job inputs, conditioned by an individual’s frame of reference (Hulin, 1991). Similarly, a considerable amount of research has linked job satisfaction to various behaviors (Spector, 1997), and numerous meta-analyses summarizing results of studies linking job satisfaction to outcomes such as job performance, absenteeism, turnover, and citizenship behaviors have been published. Thus, the cognitive and behavioral aspects of job satisfaction are relatively better developed than its affective dimension in past research. Given the relative underemphasis on affect, then, the source and nature of the paradigm shift, or “fresh approach” (Brief, 1998, p. 85), is on the affective side. The researchers who can be most directly credited with fomenting this realignment are H. Weiss and A. Brief. Weiss (2002), after reviewing current thinking in the
Timothy A. Judge, Department of Management, University of Florida; Remus Ilies, Department of Management, Michigan State University. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Timothy A. Judge, Department of Management, 211D Stuzin Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 661
attitudes literature, argued that affect and cognition are distinct influences on (rather than dimensions of) job satisfaction and further contended that affective influences have been neglected. Spector (1997) appears to agree with Weiss, commenting, “Today most researchers tend to focus attention on cognitive processes” (p. 2). Brief (1998) also argued that the cognitive perspective has dominated job satisfaction research and focuses in particular on measurement approaches. In appraising current measures of job satisfaction, Brief concluded, “Organizational scientists...