Title of Experiment: Pressure distribution on an aerofoil
Aim:
The aim of this experiment is to examine the pressure distribution on an aerofoil and its variation with incidence.
Introduction:
An aerofoil is the two-dimensional cross section of a wing, tail or helicopter rotor blade. The lift and pitching moment on an aerofoil is determined by the pressure distribution on it. The pressure distribution changes with the angle of incidence. Understanding the behaviour of aerofoils requires some understanding of the variation of the pressure distribution with incidence.

Apparatus:
This experiment uses a pressure tapped aerofoil mounted inside a low speed open return wind tunnel. The pressure tapings are connected to a multi-tube manometer, which is also used to measure the dynamic pressure.

Students should check and record all the connections on the multitube manometer. Procedure:
1. Level and adjust the multitube manometer in the vertical position with the indicator registering 90 , then incline it to approximately 40 to the horizontal. 2. Check and record all of the manometer connections.

3. Record the NACA aerofoil designation of the aerofoil.
4. Set the model at zero incidence and turn the wind tunnel on. Run the fan up to about ¾ of its full speed.
5. Record all of the manometer heights.
6. Adjust the angle of incidence to -4 and repeat the previous step. Adjust the motor control if necessary to maintain a constant dynamic pressure. 7. Repeat the previous step for 4 , 8 and 12
8. Determine the stall angle of the aerofoil and qualitatively observe the changes in pressure distribution near the stall angle.
Theory:
The non-dimensional pressure coefficient is defined as:
V
2
1
P P
C
2
i
P
Where
Pi - pressure at tapping i
P - free stream pressure
ρ - air density
V - free stream velocity
S - wing area
c - aerodynamic mean chord
The quantity of 2
2
1
V is known as the dynamic pressure and for low speeds it is equal to the difference...

...Speed Aerodynamics
PressureDistribution and Lift on a Piercy Aerofoil
Abstract
In this experiment in a low speed flow the static pressure around an aerofoil will be observed and discussed. The lift on the aerofoil will also be calculated and compared with the theoretical value. The aerofoil being used in this particular experiment is symmetrical and is taking place in a wind tunnel with a speed of 18.5m/s, therefore the flow is assumed to be incompressible. The different pressures along the surface of the aerofoil will be measured at an angle of attack of 4.1 degrees and 6.2 degrees. These values of pressure will then be analysed and graphs and calculations will be produced, the lift being calculated using the trapezium method in excel and these values and graphs will then be compared to the theoretical results for an inviscid flow from the thin aerofoil theory. The errors in the experiment will be quantified and any improvements to the experiment will be discussed.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
2. Experiment Description
3. Apparatus
4. Calculations and Results
5. Discussion
6. Conclusion
7. References...

...PressureDistribution around a Symmetric Aerofoil
Abstract:
The following report is based on an experiment conducted to calculate the lift curve slope for a symmetrical aerofoil subjected to varying angles of attack. Pressure readings were taken at different points on the upper and lower surface of the aerofoil. The report concludes that maximum lift is generated between 12 º -15º, which is also the stall point. It also states that region close to the leading edge contributes most to the lift force.
Introduction:
This experiment is designed to measure the static pressuredistribution around a symmetric aerofoil, find the normal force and hence to determine the lift- curve slope.
For zero angle of attack the pressuredistribution is symmetrical around the aerofoil. Increasing the angle of attack (lifting the leading edge) increases the velocity of airflow hence decreases the air pressure on the upper-surface. The opposite happens on the lower-surface where high pressure is created. This difference in pressure creates a force normal to the chord line in the direction of lower pressure, this force is called lift. As the angle of attack increases so does the lift until at a particular angle the airflow on the upper-surface is cut-off. This...

...DEN 302 Applied Aerodynamics
SURFACE PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS ON AN AEROFOIL IN TRANSONIC FLOW
Abstract
The objective of this exercise is to measure the pressuredistribution across the surface on an aerofoil in a wind tunnel. The aerofoil is tested under several different Mach numbers from subsonic to supercritical. The purpose of measuring the pressuredistributions is to assess the validity of the Prandtl-Glauert law and to discuss the changing chracteristics of the flow as the Mach number increases from subsonic to transonic.
As a result of the experiment and computation of data, the aerofoil was found to have a critical Mach number of M=0.732. Below this freestream Mach number the Prandtl-Glauert law predicted results very successfully. However, above this value, the law completely breaks down. This was found to be the result of local regions of supersonic flow and local shockwaves.
Contents
Abstract 2
Apparatus 2
1.Induction Wind Tunnel with Transonic Test Section 2
2.Aerofoil model 3
3.Mercury manometer 3
Procedure 3
Theory 3
Results 4
Discussion 8
Transonic Flow 8
Analysis 9
Conclusion 11
Bibliography 11
Apparatus
1.Induction Wind Tunnel with Transonic Test Section
The tunnel used in this experiment has a transonic test section with liners, which, after the contraction, remain nominally...

...Module EG1083 Fluid Mechanics
PRESSURE , FLUID SYSTEMS and FLUID PRESSURES
SM(1)
Pressure
Definition of Pressure
Fluid pressure: Force per unit area exerted by a fluid in a solid wall. Force acts perpendicularly to the surface in contacts. Fluid is a co u d s common word for gas a d/o liquid. o od o and/or qu d Pressure is a scalar quantity. It has the units of: N/m2 or Pa (or kPa) in SI system of units psi in Imperial system of units Pressure can also be expressed in terms of height of a column of liquid List of units of pressure measurements & conversion of units Pascal s Pascal’s law
Scalar quantity
Units of Pressure
SM(2)
PressurePressure measurements Absolute pressure Gauge Pressure
...divided into three different categories: 1. Absolute pressure – which is defined as the absolute value o pressure (force-per-unit-area) ac g o of p essu e ( o ce pe u a ea) acting on a surface by a fluid. su ace ud Abs. pressure = pressure at a local point of the surface due to fluid – absolute zero of pressure (see page 63 of lecture notes) 2. Gauge pressure – difference between abs. pressure and atmospheric pressure – is always positive 101.325 kPa or 14.7 psi...

...
Distribution & Pricing
Dartaine Phifer
BA181 Foundations of Marketing
Instructor: Bell, Faith
A manager’s job is never ending, if you want to be successful in this business. Denny McKnight stated, “We think of best practices as doing all the right things with the right tools and getting the right results” (Harps, Best Practices in Todays Distribution). One of the marketing plans, distribution plays a key role to how products are exposed, stored and delivered, another key factor is the price of the products. Satisfying the customer making a product available either using direct or indirect means makes the difference when it comes to profit. Managing a restaurant, finding new ideas to expand this business as a whole, but more of a trademark, a name to be known by anyone and everyone. Distribution is very important, even for a small family own restaurant, choosing the best method can determine the success or failure of the business. Selling our own salsa homemade allows us to save or spending and gaining more in profits. Networking with companies and partnering with stores for shipping of products used to make the salsa since we started to grow our own vegetables to stay fresh. Buying another freezer storage to store our very own product right here at the restaurant. We choose not to buy or use a warehouse, only if we expanded and went stateside into selling the salsa, we decide to stay local. We contracted...

...
SALES AND DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT
MORGAN & BOSS OFFICE EQUIPMENT DIVISION
SUBMITTED BY
ANGANA (F13005)
ASHISH CHANDY (F13015)
CHRISTINA IMMACULATE (F13021)
DHANYA ANN ROY (F13025)
IMMANUEL SOLOMON (F13031)
PRIYADARSHINI (F13047)
RENITA (F13051)
1. What were the major problems that were affecting the relationship between the company and the distributors?
Though the Office Equipment Division had a strong and committed distributor network Morgan imposed numerous conditions on the distributor’s operations. Initially since being Morgan’s dealer was considered an honour they agreed to all its conditions but later the dealers were pressurised on many terms which were the main reasons of friction between the dealers and the company. The following were some of the problems that existed between Morgan and its distributors.
Morgan assigned the dealers specific territories and by policy cross-selling was not allowed. They were also not allowed to distribute any other brand of similar products
Officially dealers were not...

...company can identify the different ideas and opinions of the intermediaries. Further, company is also able to take information about the competitors’ strategies. It has been identified that, without communication company cannot be able to influence the customers to buy the products (Kotler, Shalowitz & Stevens, 2011). Prices of the scooter are also high, which needs aggressive marketing in order to generate awareness among the customers. Communication is also helpful in providing every type of information to the customers about the functions of scooters. On the other hand, communication is sometimes ineffective, if the executive do not have to skills to influence the intermediaries. Improper communication channel creates disturbance in the distribution programming model.
Effective Work Teams: Organization has to develop the effective work teams in order give tough competition to the rivalry firms. In addition to this, these work teams will distribute the products to the intermediaries, so that these products will reach to the final customers. Dealerships have strong loyalty to the competitors’ products (Swaim, 2011). Therefore, these effective work teams will identify the strategies of competitors and make healthy relationships with intermediaries. This strategy provides one advantage to the company that cohesive work teams will develop some innovative ideas to produce the scooter at low cost with high fuel efficiency. On the other hand, effective work...

...TITLE: Pressuredistribution in thick-walled pressure cylinder
PREPARED BY:
MD RAZIF BIN HARUN 2004117707
GROUP MEMBERS:
1) FAITULMUEN BIN BURHANUDIN 2004117561
2) MOHAMAD NAZARULSYAH BIN MOHD NAJIB 2004336106
3) MOHAMAD ZAKI BIN ABU SEMAN 2004117579
4) NORUL AZMAN BIN ISMAIL 2004117659
PREPARED FOR:
EN. MOHD FAUZI BIN ISMAIL
DATE OF ASSIGNMENT:
1 AUGUST 2005
EXPERIMENT 5
OBJECTIVE:
To determine the stress distribution (hoop stress and radial stress) and strain distribution (hoop strain, radial strain and longitudinal strain)
APPARATUS:
Thick cylinder apparatus
THEORY:
[pic]
Figure 1
Figure 1 shows hollow cylinder, which is subjected to a uniformly distributed internal pressure P. In this experiment, the longitudinal stress L may be ignored due to the design of thick cylinder apparatus. The deformations produced are symmetrical about the axis of the cylinder and the principal strains are given by:
Hoop strain εн = σн _ υσR = 1 (σн – υσR)
E E E
Radial strain εR = σR _ υσн = 1 (σR – υσн)
E E E
Longitudinal stress εL = _ υσн _ υσR = _ 1 (σн + σR )
E E E
The elementary Lame Equations;
Radial stress σR = [pic] X...