Advertising is one of the largest generators of revenue in the world economy. Yet it remains enigmatic to a large section of people. It is akin to dream selling for some. For others it is a sheer waste of money. Whatever the perception, advertising in India as anywhere else continues to mesmerize millions of people, cutting across age, gender and social and economic disparities. Advertising is
• Paid for
• A way of promoting products, services or information • A form of communication (between manufacturer and consumer) • A physical commodity
• An integral part of pop culture
• An important economic force
• A part of our urban landscape
The analysis of advertising is an integral part of Media Studies. Advertising manifests itself in all known media forms, and is constantly seeking new media, new channels of communication. Through looking at advertising we can learn not only how the most simple narratives are constructed (a print ad is simpler than a magazine article, a TVC is simpler than a feature film, although they use the same narrative techniques), but how ideas can be communicated at great speed, through the use of single images and words.
WHAT IS ADVERTISING?
The word advertising originates from Latin word advertise, which means to turn to. The dictionary meaning of the term is “to give public notice or to give publicity”. Advertising may be defined as the process of buying sponsor-identified media space or time in order to promote a product or an idea. It is perhaps the most visible of all the elements in the promotion mix and is therefore subject to much criticism from consumer groups. It is also subjected to government regulation.
The American Marketing Association, Chicago, has defined advertising as “any paid form of non-personal presentation or promotion of ideas, goods or services, by an identified sponsor”. Advertising is not just 30 seconds of entertainment during the Super Bowl or the announcement of the new deals from the cheesy car dealer down the street. Advertising is big business--an industry with extraordinary cultural and economic impact. It has the power to create brand awareness and loyalty and to stimulate demand. In its most profound form, it can turn mere products into meaningful brands and important possessions and turn the most mundane object into a cultural icon. Advertising can be offensive or memorable, the center of controversy or the topic of conversation. In its simplest form, advertising is a method of one-way communication between an advertiser and the consumer. An advertisement is persuasive in nature and sends an intended message through a designated medium (radio, television, the Internet). However, in receiving a message, consumers do not always interpret the message as the advertiser intended. Successful advertising sales results in satisfied customers and revenue growth for the company.
i. Advertising is a paid form and hence is commercial in nature. Publicity is not paid for by the sponsor. Advertising is a paid form of publicity. Thus any sponsored communication designed to influence buyer behavior is advertising.
ii. Advertising is non-personal. Whatever the form of advertisement (visual, spoken or written), it is directed at a mass audience and not directly at the individual as in personal selling.
iii. Advertisements are identified with their sponsoring authority, which is not always the case with publicity.
ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF ADVERTISING
The history of advertising dates back to the early days of human civilization. The evolution or growth of advertising can be briefly stated as follows:
1. Early Forms of Advertising: Three forms of advertising existed during the pre-printing period, i.e. before 15th century. The three forms are as...