Advertising Decisions

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1.1 definitions
According to Kotler and Armstrong (2006) advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, and services by an identified sponsor. By paid the definition reflects the facts that the space or time of advertising message generally must be bought. Non personal indicates that advertising incorporates media such as, radio television, and magazines to transmit messages, the company also must be attached to a sponsor for instance a company who are going to persuade consumers to purchase the products being advertised. It is difficult to make generalisation since advertising has many forms and uses. According to Shimp A.T. (1990), the following characteristics can be noted. Public presentation – advertising’s public nature confers a kind of legitimacy on the product and also suggests a standardised offering. Because many people get the same message, buyers know that the motives for purchasing the product will be publicly understood. Persuasiveness – advertising permits the seller to repeat a message many times. It allows the buyer to receive and compare messages of various competitors; large scale size, power and success. Amplified expressiveness – advertising provides opportunities for dramatising the company and its product through the artful use of print, sound and colour. Impersonality – the audience does not feel obligated to pay attention or respond to advertising. Advertising is monologue in front of, not a dialogue with the audience.

1.2 Functions
According to Shimp A.T (1990), the following are some of the functions of advertising: Informing, advertising makes consumers aware of new products features, benefits, new brands, and prices of products. Through informing it reaches many people and facilitates the introduction of new products and increase the demand for the existing products. Persuading, it persuades customers to try advertised products. It influences both the primary and secondary demand of goods and services. Reminding, it keeps the company’s brand fresh in the consumers’ memory. Adding value, advertising adds value by influencing consumers’ perceptions. It causes brands to be viewed as elegant, more stylish, and more prestigious to competitive offerings. Through the vicarious modelling, models are used who influence or create long term perceptions about particular brands. This serves as encouragement to consumers when making decisions on which goods they should purchase. Assisting other company efforts, advertising is used as vehicle for delivering sales promotion; that is advertisements are the vehicles for delivery. Advertising also assists sales representatives, and enhances the results of other marketing communication. Reassurance, it is related to reminding. It seeks to assure the purchaser that they have made the right decision.

According to Kiarie and Kimani (2009), in developing an advertising program, marketing, managers must always start by identifying the target market and buyer motives. Then they can be able to make goods decisions concerning advertising. 2.1 IDENTFYING AND ANALYZING THE ADVERTISING TARGET

According to Ferrell C.O (1980) the marketer is supposed to ask himself of the people he/she is targeting. This is the group of people towards which advertising are aimed. Firm’s advertising target often includes all the persons in its target market. For example the maker of hair care products may define the target market for a shampoo as being females between the ages of 12- 49 years of range. Advertiser should analyze advertising targets to build an information base on which to develop a campaign. Information that is commonly needed includes the location, geographic distribution, the distribution of age, sex race income, and education level, and consumer attitudes regarding purchase and use of both the advertisers’ products...
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