Advertisement and Consumer Buying Behaviour

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Full Report (PDF) - Rapport francais (PDF) Objectives of this paper The 1990 World Conference on Education for All in Jomtien reaffirmed the commitment of countries to meet basic learning needs of all children, youths and adults. Specific goals, in the light of which countries agreed to establish national targets, included universal access to and completion of basic education by the year 2000 and the reduction of adult illiteracy, with specific emphasis on eliminating gender disparities in educational opportunities. However, problems of economic stagnation, continued population growth and economic and social disparities both among and within nations have posed various challenges to making this a reality. A decade has passed since Jomtien. What progress has been accomplished towards the goal of education for all? Is it possible to quantify the impact of demography on public policy, particularly on education? To what extent did policies directed towards universal access to primary education, the elimination of gender gaps and increasing net primary school enrolment ratios succeed in overcoming the challenges of population dynamics and resource constraints? Which policies have been the most effective and what can countries learn from the experience of others? This paper examines what has been accomplished and what remains to be done, first from a global perspective and then with a focus on the less developed regions where the demographic transition is still underway and where universal basic education is still far from reality. Changes in enrolment ratios, literacy rates, gender disparities, public investment in education, as well as shortages in educational provision and inadequate conditions of learning are considered against the backdrop of demographic changes. Regional figures, however, hide considerable variations within regions and even within countries, masking important differences in policies. In order to detect these variations, the situation of individual countries is presented for some specific issues. The relative success of national policies in meeting EFA goals is also examined through a comparison of the E-9 countries that together account for more than half of the world's population (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan). Specifically, the paper: * Describes population growth at the world and regional level and summarises the recent international debate on population, development and education with a focus on the impact of education on population dynamics; * Examines the impact of demographic growth on the achievement of education for all in the less developed regions of the world, outlining different policy approaches adopted in pursuing the goal of education for all against the demographic pressure; * Quantifies how E-9 countries have progressed towards universal primary education and the effort needed to fill the remaining gap by 2010 in terms of additional students to enrol, using different enrolment benchmarks; * Highlights some of the challenges ahead and the main priorities for action towards the achievement of education for all from the perspective of population and sustainable development. THE ROLE OF EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF POPULATION GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT The world population has grown rapidly… During the last forty years, the world population doubled, leading to a figure of six billion in 1999. By the middle of the next century, the world population is projected to grow further to between 7.3 and 10.7 billion, with 8.9 billion considered the most likely estimate. About half of the world's citizens are currently under the age of 24. While fertility declined in all regions of the world, except Sub-Saharan Africa, from a global total of over 5 births per woman in 1950 to an estimated 2.7 births at present, the young age structure of the world population still implies a growth of 78 million per year. Another 30-40 years will have to pass,...
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