Adverb & Adjective

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  • Topic: Adverb, Prepositional adverb, Pronominal adverb
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ADVERB

An adverb is a modifying part of speech. It describes verbs, other adverbs, adjectives, and phrases. They are used to describe how, where, when, how often and why something happens.

CATEGORIES OF ADVERB

1. GENITIVE: In Old and Middle English, the genitive case was productive, and adverbial genitives were commonplace. While Modern English does not fully retain the genitive case, it has left various relics, including a number of adverbial genitives. Some of these are now analyzed as ordinary adverbs, including the following:

a. always (which originated from all way)

b. afterwards, towards, and so on (from their counterparts in -ward, which historically were adjectives)

2. CONJUCTIVE: A conjunctive adverb is an adverb that connects two clauses. Conjunctive adverbs show cause and effect, sequence, contrast, comparison, or other relationships e.g accordingly, additionally, almost, anyway, again, as a result, besides, certainly, comparatively, consequently, contrarily etc.

The following rules are considered to be correct punctuation for conjunctive adverbs:

* Use a semicolon or period before the conjunctive adverb to separate two independent clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb. A conjunctive adverb is not strong enough to join two independent clauses without the aid of a semicolon.

* Use a comma following the conjunctive adverb when it appears at the beginning of the second clause unless the adverb is one syllable.

Like other adverbs, conjunctive adverbs may move around in the clause (or sentence) in which they appear. When they appear at the end of the clause, they are preceded by a comma. If they appear in the middle of the clause, they are normally enclosed in commas, though this rule is not absolute and is not always applied to very short clauses.

Examples:

* He can leap tall buildings in a single bound; furthermore, Dwight Schrute is a hog.

* He can leap tall buildings in a single bound. Furthermore, Dwight Schrute is a hog.

* Bret enjoys video games; therefore, he is a crazy nerd.

* Bret enjoys video games. He is a crazy nerd.

* He went to the store; however, he did not buy anything.

* He went to the store. He did not buy anything.

* Stephanie lent me a barrel of pickled plums; consequently, she is my girlfriend.

* Stephanie lent me a barrel of pickled plums. She is consequently my friend.

* I sat down alongside Adam; henceforth, he sang.

* Elaine wanted to high-five the friendly giant; consequently, she had to jump to reach him.

3. PREPOSITIONAL: A prepositional adverb is a word - mainly a particle - which is very similar in its form to a preposition but functions as an adverb. Prepositional adverbs occur mainly in English, German and Dutch. Unlike real prepositions, they occur mainly at the end of a phrase and not before nouns. They also modify the verb, which a preposition does not.

An example of a prepositional adverb in English is inside in He came inside.

A verb combined with a prepositional adverb is called a phrasal verb only if the verb's meaning is changed by the prepositional adverb. In English, there are lots of examples of this. For example, let can have many possible meanings depending on which prepositional adverb it is combined with (let down, let in, let off, let to etc.)

4. PRONOMIAL: A pronominal adverb is a type of adverb occurring in a number of Germanic languages, formed in replacement of a preposition and a pronoun by turning the latter into a locative adverb and the former into a prepositional adverb and joining them in reverse order.

For example:

* For that → therefore

* In that → therein

* By this → hereby

* To this → hereto

* In which → wherein

In English, pronominal adverbs are most...
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