Advent of Europeans

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ADVENT OF EUROPEANS

In

1453, the Turks captured Constantinople and closed the Mediterranian sea route. So the Europeans had to discover a new sea route to Eastern Countries. Dicoveries of 15th and the 16th centuries paved the way ior the Europeans to have trade relations with the Eastern countries, particularly with lndia. Portugal and Spain encouraged their navigators to undertake sea voyages.

Coming of the Portuguese: The Portugltese were first among the Europeans to discover a sea route to India. The king of Portrgal, Henry- the navigator encouraged the sailors to undertake the ..u ,royuges. Consequently, a Portuguese sailor, Vasco-da-gama reached Calicut on the western coast of India, in 1498. He was received by Zamorin, the ruler of Calicut. 'fhis paved the way for establishing their settlement. When the San Gabriel sailed around the Cape of Good l Iope to finally dock at Calicut, a prosperous porl and an independent principality on the Malabar Coast in Muy, l4gl, half a century of the Porluguese tentative to find a sea route to India wa.s finally crowned with success. The man behinci the quest was Vasco da Gama (1460-1524) - a devout Roman Cathoiic whose nightlong vigil in a Lisbon chapel befbre commending himself to the unsnle waters had finally paid off. and if 'Christians and spices' were his twin pretext at the outset, da Gama's successive visits to lndia, lhrst in 1500 to set up a ;factory' or a trading base, then in 1502 to wreak havoc c-rn the port and Arab trading vessels alike, proveil that Portugal and its prime sailor had other things on their mincl as well. l'he Portuguese were probably here to stay, and da Gama was to earn himself the distinction of Governor of all Porluguese possessions in India in the twiligl-rt of his life. D,Albuquerque (1495-1515) chalked out and consolidated Pc',rtugal's trade routes to India during tire sixteenth century. Portuguese Emcrged As New Ruler Albuquerque was 1n imperial rather than a commercial emissary of Portugal. Flamessing strategic ports mainly in the Persian Gulf; along the west coast of India This drove him and beyond, or,..iod. the need to garner support of the local rulers. Malay to capture Goa on the west coast oll.tdiu in 1510, Melaka (Malacca) on the in peninsula in 1511, Hormuzatthe opening of the Persian Gulf in 1515, Bassein

While da Gamma paved the way for the Portuguese to India, Dotn Alphonso

1534, Daman and Diu in 1535 and Colombo in 1591. The series proved that the Portuguese were the new rulers of the roost.

of offensives

Their mercantile and imperial strategies were paralleled by a drive to convert the masses to Roman Catholic Christianity. Temples disappeared from the Goan landscape to be replaced with churches, monasteries and seminaries. As the Portuguese Viceroy in India, Albuquerque encouraged mixed marriages with the inteniof procuring fresh recruits, especially in the form of offsprings, to serve the Portuguese project in India and elsewhere' However, with the rise of military, political and maritime mights like the Dutch and the English, History forced the Portuguese in India into the wings. Unable to cast its net much further than Goa after being united to Spain, Portugal's focus of interest shifted from India to more lucrative lands.

Growth of the Portuguese: Over the time, the Portuguese obtained trading rights at Nagapattinam from the Sevappa Nayak of Tanjore. A Portuguese fleet arrived in 1533 and occupied the port iowrrs like Nagapattinam, and Tuticorin. Santhome in Chennai was also one of the Portuguese settlements. Madurai Nayak attempted to send the Portuguese away from h:rdia, but failed.

causes for the decline of the Portuguese Power in India: a. Portugal was a small country. It could not control a big country like India. b. The Portuguese merchants were rarely honest. c. The Dutch and the English became the strong rivals to the Portuguese in India.

The Arrival of Dutch The Dutch traders aame from...
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