According to Peak (2007), every organization has a structure that includes specialization (p. 28); a vertical organizational structure (p.88). In fact, the division of labor is specialization and it is "crucial to effectiveness and efficiency in large organizations" or as a sole practitioner. Moreover, organizational specialization refers to confining each and every member of an organized group to a single function. (p. 28). Technical skills involve "specialized knowledge" toanalyze and use the tools of the specialty (p. 45 n60). Each discipline has its own set of skills and tools that must be mastered. For example, police detectives need"technical skills in interviewing, fingerprinting, breathalyzer machines, surveillance, conducting stakeouts, training animals, SWAT, hostage negotiators, hazardous materials team" or computer forensics (p. 45, 65, 89, 102, 163).
Advantages:•Delegated Responsibility to a person or group or specific unit for specific tasks within a department specialized and narrowly focused in separate and distinct areas of work like accident investigation, or crime investigation.
•Expanding expertise is a natural progression since knowledge is not stagnant. Those with special skills within a department expand on their knowledge learning related or new techniques or skills or learn new technology or processes like homicide investigators learning forensic pathology.
•Group spirit, esprit de corp, is a special bond, camaraderie, or team sprit held within a specialty group working together achieving success and dependant on each member individually for the success of the group which increases confidence and solidarity (p. 66).
•Increased efficiency and...