Discuss the advantages of the scientific method, (15 marks)
Objectivity- reduces researcher bias and without it, we have no way of being certain that the data collected is valid. Operationalising the variables that are being controlled and measure- the researcher is not relying on opinion or interpretation. Increases reliability, research can be repeated and the variables can be measured n the same way. EXAMPLES- Gardner and Gardner- language was operationalised as signs that were used...spontaneously..in the correct context...on three separate occasions...seen by 3 observers and used for 15 days in a row. This meant that it was not the different researcher's opinions as to whether Washoe had correctly used language. Asch- used test-retest reliability with 12 critical trials to ensure the answers given were due to the ppts conforming to the majority even though the answer in unambiguous.
Control- less likely for confounding variables to effect the research. Can see the effect of the IV on the DV so casual relationships can be seen. EXAMPLES- it was possible to be sure that it was the reinforcement of negative/positive behaviours that caused the rat to press the lever in Skinners operant conditioning experiments. AND in Gibson and Walk's experiment- in a controlled environment so variables.
Psychological theories can be developed, adapted and discarded in the light of new evidence- EXAMPLES- Rosenham- found experienced professionals could not distinguish between real and false patients. brought issue of validity of psychiatric patients diagnosis to public attention... Led to Improvements within the system of diagnosis. AND Campos et al- used the visual cliff apparatus.. Developed g&w findings- able to measure emotion.. Found 5months had slower heart rate than 9months when placed on the cliff side..refutes gandw because it suggests nurture plays a part in depth perception.
Produce quantitative data- can be analysed statistically.. Researchers an...
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