An optical fiber is a thin and flexible fiber that carries the light between the two ends of the fiber. Optical fibers are widely used in Fiber Optic Communications, which is the transmission over longer distances at higher bandwidths than other communications.
A fiber optic communication system consists of three components: an optical transmitter, a fiber optic cable, and an optical receiver. The optical transmitter converts electrical signal to optical signal; the fiber cable carries the optical signal from the transmitter to the receiver; and the optical receiver converts the optical signal to electrical signal.
Most optical fibers are made of silica or sand, raw material abundant compared with copper. With just a few pounds of glass, approximately 43km of optical fiber can be produced.
Optical fibers can be used as a medium for telecommunication and networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables. It is especially advantageous for long-distance communications, because light propagates through the fiber with little attenuation compared to electrical cables. For short distance applications, such as creating a network within an office building, fiber-optic cabling can be used to save space in cable ducts. This is because a single fiber can often carry much more data than many electrical cables. Among the many advantages, we can find:
1.Insensitivity to electromagnetic interference, such as when a telephone wire loses some of its signal to another. 2.Fiber do not lose any light, therefore the transmission is also secure and cannot be disturbed. 3.Lack of electrical signals in the fiber, so it cannot shock or other hazards. This makes fibers suitable for work in explosive atmospheres. 4.Easy to install.
5.Compatibility with digital technology.
6.Lightness and small size of the cable, capable of carrying a large number of signals.
Despite the advantages listed above, optical fibers have...