Advances in Automobile Emission Control Techniques

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3rd, December, 2005

Paper presentation on
ADVANCES IN AUTOMOBILE EMISSION CONTROL TECHNIQUES

by
lakshmi & SriBharani Latha, B.Tech (MECH)
GRIET, Bachupally, Hyderabad.

Contents:

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Types of emissions
a) Tailpipe emissions
b) Evaporative emissions
4. Emission standards
5. Need to control emissions
6. Emission Testing Procedures
7. Emission control techniques
I. Tailpipe emission control techniques
i) Increasing engine efficiency by Electronic Ignition, Fuel injection… ii) Increasing vehicle efficiency
iii) Increasing driving efficiency
iv) Cleaning up the emissions by Air Injection, Exhaust Gas Recirculation, Catalytic Converter, Spark Optimizer
II. Evaporative emission control techniques
a) By capturing vented vapors
b) Reducing refueling losses

8. Latest advances in control of emissions from automobiles I. Nasa’s laser technology
II. Alcohols in diesel engines
III. Fuel cell vehicles
IV. Electric vehicles

9. Conclusion
10. Reference

ABSTRACT

In many urban areas, automobile transportation accounts for the majority of smog-forming emissions, and air pollution control legislation continues to spur the research and development of lower-emission automobiles. A study was conducted to explore the techniques for the control of exhaust emissions from automobiles. The study concludes by suggesting principles for making zero-emission vehicle policy by the development of technology for laser technology based vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, battery-powered electric vehicles, and the future effectiveness of policies to control emissions from gasoline vehicles.

INTRODUCTION

Exhaust pollution originates inside an engine’s cylinder, where the mixture of air and gasoline is rapidly bounded. The head from combustion creates a high pressure, pushing the piston to produce the mechanical energy that moves the car .If the fuel is perfectly burned, the only by products would be water vapor and CO2. CO2 is non-toxic although it does cause global warming. Combustion is never perfect, and as a result, harmful pollutants such as unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOX), and carbon monoxide (CO) are created.

Types of Emissions

The Emissions produced by a vehicle fall into two basic categories:

a) Tailpipe emissions
b) Evaporative emissions

Tailpipe Emissions:

I. Hydro carbons (HC):
These are emitted because of incomplete gasoline combustion, these combine with nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight to form ground-level oxygen, a major component of smog and has adverse health effects.

II. NITROGEN OXIDES (NOx):
Under the high pressure and temperature conditions in an engine, nitrogen and oxygen atoms in the air react to form various nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides like HC are precursors to the formation of ozone. They also contribute to the formation of acid rain.

III. CARBON MONOXIDE (CO):
Carbon monoxide is a product of incomplete combustion and occurs when carbon in the fuel is partially oxidized rather than fully oxidized to carbon dioxide. It causes serious, possibly fatal, health problems.

IV. LEAD (Pb):
These emissions originate from the combustion of leaded gasoline. Alkyl lead compounds are used as fuel additives in large vehicles to control engine knocking. Enough lead in the atmosphere can cause lead poisoning and other health concerns.

V. CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2):
Although this is a product of complete combustion, it does not directly impair human health, but it is a “Green House Gas”, that traps the earth’s heat and contributes to the potential for global warming.

VI. SULFUR DIOXIDE (SO2):
This is a by-product formed by burning sulfur. Sulfur dioxide can combine with water to form sulfuric...
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