Advancements and the Development of Agriculture in Ancient Greece and Rome

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Advancements and the Development of
Agriculture in Ancient Greece and Rome

Compare and contrast the development of institutions and traditions such as political, social, economic, or intellectual in any of the two classical civilizations: China, India, Greece, Rome, Mesoamerica, Andes.

The rise of the Greek Empire was around 1000 B.C.E. The city of Rome was founded in 753 B.C.E. by Romulus; although, research reveals the area was inhabited before that time. The development of institutions and traditions of agriculture and the advancements in the classical civilizations of Greece and Rome were very similar yet different. Both empires relied heavily upon agriculture for personal consumption and often for added income. Also, during that time, the advancements in Rome were not as impressive as those in Greece.

In Greece, agriculture was the foundation of the economy; nearly 80 percent of the population participated in this production. The Greek diet focused around grains, especially barley. Greece was estimated to have only twenty percent of usable land for growing crops. In addition to barley, the main crops of the empire were grapes and olives. The location of Greece provided farmers with a good climate, but the terrain was not intended for cultivation. Farmers usually grew enough food to support their families and also to occasionally sell at a local market. After harvesting, the barley was made into porridge or ground to make bread. Olives were grown mainly for their oil, which was used for lamps and cooking. Wine and raisins were made from the grapes.

Agriculture stimulated the Roman economy and perhaps saved the empire from starvation. By 100 B.C.E., most farming was done on large estates with Romans mainly using slaves to work in their fields. Due to the differences in climate throughout the region, Romans produced numerous goods for consumption and income. Like Greece, Rome mostly produced olives, grapes, and grain. Olives...
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