Dr.s Paul and Robert Ward are the authors of “Encyclopedia of Weight Training.” For reviews and where to order the book, See details at the end of this chapter.
ADVANCED TRAINING (ANAEROBIC/AEROBIC & WEIGHT TRAINING) DR. PAUL WARD 2/28/01 – 11/24/01 – Revised 5/15/02
BEYOND THE BASICS!
INTRODUCTION When you are successful in your efforts to improve your fitness state (muscular and cardiovascular) you develop a desire to move on to higher levels of achievement. This is a natural response and it is noble and wise to pursue it. The big task is to avoid the tendency to drive yourself into an over-trained state which leads to physical injuries and mental distress and great dissatisfaction. Your objective is to intelligently approach advanced training to ensure optimal results and high satisfaction. Harder is “not smarter” nor is “more -- better.” The usual human response is to think the following. I have made good progress with my program so I will just perform it HARDER and LONGER. THIS IS A BIG MISTAKE! To be successful in training (general fitness or for high level performance) the training process needs to be periodized (cycled). Periodization is the planned and frequent changing of the many variables of training throughout the year and over the years of life. The overall object is to “STIMULATE, DON’T ANNIHILATE!” For all kinds of training, periodization (cycling) of training is the best method to ensure success in training. Research and practical experience has shown that the planned variation of training variables (periodization or cycling training) produces better results and ability to maintain the training effort (any level of experience) over a long time, hopefully a lifetime. This chronic manipulation of the training variables allows the physiological, psychological, hormonal, nervous, cardiovascular and the muscle systems to optimally adapt to higher levels of performance. Moreover, the periodization approach to training minimizes injury and maximizes the response of the human organism to physical activity. This is applicable to all levels of training from the beginner to the advanced exerciser and extends from youth to very old age. Periodization of training programs makes the engagement in exercise programs enjoyable and effective throughout life. The basic components of physical fitness are: strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance and optimal body composition. Flexibility and motor fitness are not part of physical fitness and need separate programs to develop. It is prudent to balance your approach to life in a rational way which is to include the training of as many aspects of physical fitness and motor fitness that matches your needs and desires. All physical fitness components are highly variable dependent upon the activity level and types and methods of exercising utilized in training. A scientifically sound training program that is periodized over the lifespan can maximize enjoyment, maintain functionality, maintain and improve appearance and health, and reduce the risk of chronic diseases while enhancing the quality of life. During the human lifespan people are confronted with a number of ailments, including: (1) cardiovascular disease; (2) cancer; (3) high blood pressure; (4) depression; (5)
osteoporosis; (6) bone fractures; (7) diabetes; (8) arthritis; (9) orthopedic impairments; (10) hearing impairments; (11) cataracts; and (12) visual impairments. Exercise has been shown to dramatically improve 9 of these health problems (1 through 9). All of these ailments (1-9) can be ameliorated by exercise intervention. All people should be engaged in an exercise program at some level until they die, excluding those people who are disabled by injury or sickness. Periodization should be applied in muscle training and fat reduction programs and in the programs applied to improve the anaerobic and aerobic qualities. The following sections will present advanced training concepts for:...