with Peter Sunderland
English Grammar and Vocabulary
Macmillan Education Between Towns Road, Oxford OX4 3PP A division of Macmillan Publishers Limited Companies and representatives throughout the world ISBN 1 405 00762 1 with key ISBN 1 405 00761 3 without key Text © Michael Vince 2003 Design and illustration © Macmillan Publishers Limited 2003 First published 1994 This edition published 2003 All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publishers. Designed by Mike Brain Graphic Design Limited Layout and composition by Newton Harris Design Partnership Cover design by Oliver Design Illustrated by: Ed McLachlan pp 109; Julian Mosedale pp 12, 39, 110, 123, 153, 176, 195, 217, 225, 257; David Parkins pp 3, 42, 73; Martin Shovel pp 10, 16, 56, 70, 117, 147, 235, 285; Bill Stott pp 122; Kingsley Wiggin pp 24, 27, 57, 191, 220. Photographs by: Eyewire, Photodisc and Andrew Oliver. The author would like to thank the many schools and teachers who have commented on these materials. Also special thanks to Peter Sunderland and Sarah Curtis.
Printed and bound in Italy by G. Canale and C. S.p. A Borgaro T.se, Turin 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 1 09 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Present time Basic contrasts: present simple and present continuous State verbs and event (action or dynamic) verbs State verbs normally without a continuous form Difference of meaning in stative and active verbs Other uses of present continuous Other uses of present simple Future time Basic contrasts: will, going to, present continuous Future continuous Future perfect Other ways of referring to the future Other future references Past time Basic contrasts: past simple and past continuous Past perfect simple and continuous Used to and would Unfulfilled past events Polite forms Contrast with present perfect Present perfect Present perfect simple Present perfect continuous Contrast of present perfect simple and present perfect continuous Time expressions with present perfect 14
Passive 1 Basic uses Using and not mentioning the agent Passive 2 Have and get something done, need doir, Passive get Reporting verbs Verbs with prepositions Common contexts for the passive
Conditionals Basic usage: truths, real situations, hypothetical situations (present and past) Variations: if only, unless, and other alternatives to if, past events with results in the present, should, were to, happen to, if it were not for, if it hadn't been for Other ways of making a conditional sentence: supposing, otherwise, but for, if so, if not, colloquial omission of if, if and adjectives, if meaning although Unreal time and subjunctives It's time, it's high time Wishes I'd rather and I'd sooner, I'd prefer As if, as though Suppose and imagine Formal subjunctives Formulaic subjunctive
Modals: present and future 65 Don't have to and must not: absence of obligation, obligation not to do something Should: expectation, recommendation, criticism of an action, uncertainty with verbs of thinking, with be and adjectives describing chance after in case to emphasise unlikelihood Could: possibility or uncertainty, with comparative adjectives to express possibility or impossibility, suggestions, unwillingness Can: criticism, capability Must and can't: certainty, present time reference only May and might: although clauses, may/might as well, possibility or uncertainty with try Shall: certainty, what the speaker wants to happen Will: assumption, intention, refuse and insist Would: annoying habits, certainty Need: need to...