Adult Obesity: Application of Orem, King, and Pender's Conceptual Models
Adult obesity is one of the United States most serious health problems. Approximately 127 million adult Americans in the U.S. are overweight (American Obesity Association, n. d.). "Each year, obesity causes at least 300,000 excess deaths in the U.S., and healthcare costs of American adults with obesity amount to approximately $100 billion" (American Obesity Association, n. d.). Nurses in the healthcare profession are facing new challenges in managing this disease. This paper will analyze adult obesity by applying nursing theories from Dorothea Orem, Imogene King, and Nola Pender's models. Adult Obesity's Relevance to Nursing
"The role of obesity in the etiology of diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease is well established. Obesity is also recognized as a major risk factor in the development of many other diseases, such as gastro esophageal reflux, arthritis of weight-bearing joints, sleep apnea, and certain types of cancer" (Bond, Evans, DeMaria, Meador, Warren, Shannon, & Shannon, 2004, p. 849). Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Nurses caring for obese patients should recognize the need to use specialized assessment and management strategies to prevent poor patient outcomes. The case scenario provides an example of an obese female. TW is a 45 year old obese, Caucasian American female. She weighs 240 pounds and is five feet two inches tall. She has previously been seen at the clinic for bronchitis. However, today she would like to discuss her increase in weight gain and decrease in mobility. At this time, the patient's only past medical history is bronchitis, obesity, and decrease mobility. She denies any neurological, cardiovascular, respiratory and gastrointestinal issues. TW lives with her husband and two children in a smoke free home located in the suburbs. Her diet consists of junk food and soft drinks. She states she does not have time to cook with two young children. TW uses a cane for short distances and does not walk long distances due to increased fatigue with ambulating. She functions independently with other activities of daily living. She does not attend social functions outside of the home or participate in physical activity because of her obesity. TW sleeps four to five hours per night. This case study is a common example of issues nurses face in the clinical setting. Approaches to Adult Obesity
Orem's Self Care Deficit Nursing Theory, King's Conceptual Framework and Theory of Goal Attainment and Pender's Health Promotion Model can be used to discuss the issues with adult obesity applied to nursing. These frameworks direct nursing practice by setting goals and will provide a foundation for adult obesity.
Orem's Theory guides nursing practice with concepts and goal setting. Her theory proposes that humans have an ability to take action for regulating life, health, and well-being (Cox & Taylor, 2005, p. 249). "Orem labels her Self Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT) as a general theory composed of three related theories: (1) the theory of self-care, which describes why and how people care for themselves; (2) the theory of self-care deficit, which describes and explains why people can be helped through nursing; and (3) the theory of nursing systems, which describes and explains relationships that must be brought about and maintained for nursing to be produced" (Tomey & Alligood, 2002, p. 191). Orem believes during a comprehensive assessment using her SCDNT, pertinent information regarding the patient allows the nurse to see if a self-care deficit exists. This examination will assist the nurse in creating a guide, determining nursing interventions, and delivering appropriate nursing care. King's Conceptual Framework and Theory of Goal Attainment can be applied to adult obesity. "King's dynamic conceptual framework of interacting...