Theresa Ann Hayden, M.A., Ed.S.
Classroom Assessment in Education
Dr. Kelli Ligeikis
June 15, 2011
Adult Learner Assessment
Classroom assessment is critical to the measurement of student achievement. As stated in Angelo and Cross, (1993): Classroom assessment helps individual college teachers obtain useful feedback on what, how much, and how well their students are learning… [the purpose] is to produce the highest possible quality of student learning…to help student learn more effectively and efficiently than they could on their own (p. 3). Student learning is the overall goal of education; the student may be a child, an adult, an informal learner, or a formal learner; regardless of which type of learner he or she is, the goal is to learn new concepts, topics, and subjects. The mastery of that subject matter is the charge of both the teacher and the student. In identifying three concepts pertinent to classroom assessments for adult learners, “assessment procedures can be used for measuring entry performance (placement assessment), monitoring learning progress (formative and diagnostic assessment), or measuring end-of-instruction achievement (summative assessment)” (Gronlund and Waugh, 2009, p. 14). This translates to the classroom as pre-test, or preview (to writing skills, for example); on-the-spot identification of “opportunities for improvement,” feedback and post-testing, whether it’s verbal, written, or another assessment. Classroom assessment is typically, one of the last steps performed in the education of adult learners. However, assessment of a student’s abilities before, during, and after teaching can also be performed. First, the teacher plans and prepares instructional objectives which are in line with the learning institution, state, and local objectives. These objectives must also be: Guided by what the students are expected to learn… [while] the instructional objectives are also in harmony with the assessment produced… [these] should also be stated in terms of the student performance to be demonstrated… [and] those observable skills such as speaking, or a product such as a written paper…and typically a rubric, scale, or a checklist of some type is used (Gronlund and Waugh, 2009, pp. 43 - 44). Teacher Effectiveness
According to “Effective Classroom Instruction” (2004):
Effective classroom instruction refers to the application of the ‘teacher effectiveness’ variables, that is, those variables that have been demonstrated to bear the strongest relation to student achievement. These variables include time on task, content coverage, pacing, scope and sequence, questioning, feedback, and praise. Systematic application of these elements has been demonstrated to increase academic achievement. Behavioral outcomes are the initial objectives in place before any of the instruction takes place. In addition, the characteristics of classroom assessment include that it is “learner-centered, teacher-directed, mutually beneficial, formative, context-specific, ongoing, and rooted in good-teaching practice” (Angelo and Cross, 1993, pp. 4 - 6). In layperson’s language, the typical activities of a teacher and where they fit into the characteristics of student-achievement learning include: Teachers will use various techniques and tools to facilitate the learning of the students which is learner-centered. The teacher will impart knowledge and the student will obtain knowledge is teacher directed. The opportunity for both teachers and adult students to meet in an environment conducive to learning with a common goal of ‘knowledge’; the teacher to impart knowledge and the student to obtain knowledge is mutually beneficial. Using internal and external feedback to modify lessons is formative and ongoing. The assessment on the part of the teacher comes from goal-setting at the beginning of the quarter, semester, etc. with regard to the quantity and quality of concept and skill...