•The period of adolescence and the cultural aspects thereof  •The educational implications of the physical development [3-4] •The factors that could possibly lead to heightened emotionality  •The guidelines that should be kept in mind if you want to offer  adolescents career guidance. •How to accompany the adolescent during this phase of human [5-6] development. •What depression is 
•Kinds of depression 
•Characteristics of depression [6-7]
•Causes of depression 
•How to deal with an adult who suffers from depression from an  educational point of view. •Discussion on Postformal thought of an adult during cognitive [8-9] development with reference to educational implications and the guidelines that can be followed to improve adults’ learning performance and memories.
The period of adolescence is a marked, in many societies by an initiation ritual which prepares the person to adulthood. In some societies, adolescents are forced to go through these rituals so as to be able to be accepted as an adult. It is practiced in many countries but it is believed to be originated from Egypt. Both male and female circumcisions were practiced as early as in ancient Egypt. Initiation rituals are common in African societies where girls have to undergo clitoridectomy and are tattooed so as to mark their entry in adulthood. In North America, the rituals are in the form of a vision quest in which both boys and girls are sent to a jungle where they have to stay, fast and wait for a vision which will reveal their future. These initiation rituals used to be very important in ancient times but are now looked at with certain contempt especially when the abuses and ill-treatments of the adolescents are taken into consideration. It is now considered as inhuman and is in contradiction with the Human Rights as these Initiation rituals have cost the lives of many boys and girls as the tasks imposed on them during these rituals are much too hard for their tender bodies. b)
Physical development in an adolescent is both biological and physiological. Their metabolic rates increases and so do their skills. Their body changes drastically as boys and start having manly voices, with a body growing muscular, with appearance of hair on the chin, armpits, and genitals and as for girls, they start having their menstruations and a body which starts to shape itself. Considering these changes, child-minders should pay particular attention to what the adolescent is eating so as to keep their metabolism at a correct rate and also the proportion of food taken in should also be monitored so as to avoid obesity, anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Self-confidence and self-esteem of the adolescents can be boosted by the encouragements he gets from the people around him. Encouragements are very important in cases when the adolescents feel that their body is not growing they want it to and this may cause a feeling of inferiority in them which can lead to depression and disorders like anorexia. Child-minders should stress on the fact that it is very important to develop their personalities too along with their physique. Adolescents may also be influenced into having unsafe sex, thus child-minders aught to inform them about the dangers like AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases and the risk of early pregnancy. An unbalanced and premature sex life may cause a dependence to sex and a loss of concentration in studies and academic achievements. Parents should explain and clear out any confusion about superstitions which the adolescents may have. All adolescents must be encouraged to have a proper personal hygiene and exercises at a regular basis.