MODULE 1: ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESS IN NURSING
Submitted by: Jennelyn M. Pondang
Submitted to: Prof. Liwayway T. Vallesteros
• Answer learning activities (page 14) nos. 3 and 4.
• Illustrate using a table a comparison of the ff leadership style:
a. Democratic, Authoritarian, and Laissez-faire
b. Transformational and Transactional
• Which of the above leadership styles do you think your immediate manager adhere to? Support your assumption.
3. Compare Theory X, Y, and Z. Which one would you prefer in your organization? Why? Theory X assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can and that they inherently dislike work. As a result of this, management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed. According to this theory, employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can. Theory X managers rely heavily on threat and coercion to gain their employee's compliance, believe that everything must end in blaming someone and that his or her employees do not really want to work, that they would rather avoid responsibility and that it is the manager's job to structure the work and energize the employee. Beliefs of this theory lead to mistrust, highly restrictive supervision, and a punitive atmosphere. Usually these managers feel the sole purpose of the employee's interest in the job is money. They will blame the person first in most situations, without questioning whether it may be the system, policy, or lack of training that deserves the blame. Theory Y assumes that people are creative and eager to work. Workers tend to desire more responsibility than Theory X workers, and have strong desires to participate in the decision making process. Theory Y workers are comfortable in a working environment which allows creativity and the opportunity to become personally involved in organizational planning. Creativity and imagination are increasingly present throughout the ranks of the working population. These people not only accept responsibility, but actively seek increased authority. In this theory, management assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. Theory Y managers believe that employees will learn to seek out and accept responsibility and to exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed. They believe that the satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation. Many people interpret Theory Y as a positive set of beliefs about workers. Theory Y managers are more likely than Theory X managers to develop the climate of trust with employees that is required for human resource development. This would include managers communicating openly with subordinates, minimizing the difference between superior-subordinate relationships, creating a comfortable environment in which subordinates can develop and use their abilities. This theory is a positive view to the employees, meaning that the employer is under a lot less pressure than someone who is influenced by a theory X management style. Another theory which deals with the way in which workers are perceived by managers, as well as how managers are perceived by workers, is William Ouchi's "Theory Z". Often referred to as the "Japanese" management style, Theory Z offers the notion of a hybrid management style which is a combination of a strict American management style (Theory A) and a strict Japanese management style (Theory J). This theory speaks of an organizational culture which mirrors the Japanese culture in which workers are more participative, and capable of performing many and varied tasks. Theory Z emphasizes things such as job rotation, broadening of skills, generalization versus specialization and the need for...
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