Adjustment Psychology: Caeers and Work

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Adulthood, Career and Work
CP 5001 Psychology of Adjustment
Mr. Rangsan Traibutra
17th November 2010
Chapter Outline
Adulthood
The expanse of adulthood
Aging: A gradual process
Career and Work
Choosing a career
Models of career choice and development
The changing world of work
Coping with occupational hazards
Balancing work and other spheres of life
The Expanse of Adulthood
Social Clock – a person’s notion of a developmental schedule that specifies what he or she should have accomplished by certain points in life. The social clock differs for each culture
Important life events that occur too early or too late can produce stress The Expanse of Adulthood (cont.)
Early Adulthood (Age 20 to 40)

Erikson's Theory - Stage 6th : Intimacy vs. Isolation.
Young adulthood’s learning to open up to others, to commit to others and to give oneself unselfishly. The Expanse of Adulthood (cont.)
Early Adulthood (cont.)
Adjusting to the world of work
Need to complete schooling, secure first job.
Many still only tentatively committed to chosen occupation.
Men – continuous pattern, women – discontinuous in workforce The Expanse of Adulthood (cont.)
Early Adulthood (cont.)
Adjusting to marriage and family life
First child arrival represents a major transition - a shift toward husband and wife responsibility. Women experience more work-family conflicts than men.
Marital satisfaction tends to decline and continue to lower until middle adulthood. The Expanse of Adulthood (cont.)
Middle Adulthood (Age 40 to 65)

Erikson’s Theory, stage 7th : Generativity Vs. Stagnation (Care) A concern for the welfare of future generations
Confronting the aging process
A number of physical transformations occur. People force to acknowledge mortality. Transition of the parenting role
Parental influence over children declines.
The ‘empty nest’ is widely to be traumatic event for parents. The Expanse of Adulthood (cont.)
Middle Adulthood (cont.)
Transitions in the work role
Those in stable career pattern are at peak of careers.
Those in changing careers pattern are more varied group. (cutbacks, new challenge seeking, women). Is there a midlife crisis? Midlife crisis - a turbulent period of doubts and reappraisal of one’s life. The expanse of Adulthood (Cont.)

Late Adulthood (After Age 65)
Ericson’s theory, stage 8th : Integrity vs. Despair (Wisdom) Retirement
Today individuals tend to retire earlier than 62.
Individuals approach retirement with highly variable attitudes.  Changes in support networks
Couples' relationship satisfaction tends to increase later in life. Friends seem to play more significant role in life satisfaction. The Expanse of Adulthood (Cont.)
Late Adulthood (After Age 65)
Other significant challenges
Coping with health problems.
Dealing with the death of friends and partners.
Confronting one’s own mortality
Aging: A Gradual Process
Physical Changes
Changes in appearance
Height decreases / Weight increases / Hair becomes gray
Older people tend to view themselves as less attractive (Particularly problematic for women. May be a "double standard" of aging) Aging: A Gradual Process (cont.)
Physical Changes (cont.)

Sensory change
Important change in hearing and vision.
Neurological changes
The number of active neurons in the brain declines steadily during adulthood, especially after age 50. Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia can strike during middle age or later Aging: A Gradual Process (cont.)

Physical Changes (cont.)

Hormonal changes
Menopause: the time when menstruation ceases
physical discomfort: hot flashes, night sweats, emotional strain. Changes in health status
Quality of health tends to diminish.
The proportion of people with a chronic health problem climbs steadily with age. Lifestyle differences, access to health care.
To increase likelihood of good health: exercise regularly, eat healthy diet. Aging: A Gradual Process (cont.)
Cognitive Changes
Intelligence
IQ...
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