Adenovirus Infection

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  • Topic: Adenoviridae, Viruses, Virus
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  • Published : June 25, 2010
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Adenovirus infection
Adenovirus infections most commonly cause illness of the respiratory system; however, depending on the infecting serotype, they may also cause various other illnesses, such as gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, cystitis, and rash illness. Symptoms of respiratory illness caused by adenovirus infection range from the common cold syndrome to pneumonia, croup, and bronchitis. Patients with compromised immune systems are especially susceptible to severe complications of adenovirus infection. Acute respiratory disease (ARD), first recognized among military recruits during World War II, can be caused by adenovirus infections during conditions of crowding and stress. Recently, several adenoviruses, especially adenovirus 36 (AD-36), have been shown to cause obesity in animals, and are associated with human obesity.[1][2] Diagnosis

Antigen detection, polymerase chain reaction assay, virus isolation, and serology can be used to identify adenovirus infections. Adenovirus typing is usually accomplished by hemagglutination-inhibition and/or neutralization with type-specific antisera. Since adenovirus can be excreted for prolonged periods, the presence of virus does not necessarily mean it is associated with disease. Treatment

Most infections are mild and require no therapy or only symptomatic treatment. Because there is no virus-specific therapy, serious adenovirus illness can be managed only by treating symptoms and complications of the infection. Deaths are exceedingly rare but have been reported.[4] Prevention

Safe and effective adenovirus vaccines were developed for adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7, but were available only for preventing ARD among US military recruits,[5] and production stopped in 1996.[6] Strict attention to good infection-control practices is effective for stopping nosocomial outbreaks of adenovirus-associated disease, such as epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Maintaining adequate levels of chlorination is necessary for preventing swimming pool-associated outbreaks of adenovirus conjunctivitis. Adenovirus serotype 36

Human adenovirus 36 (HAdV-36) or AD-36 is one of 52 types of adenoviruses known to infect humans. AD-36 was first isolated in 1978 from the feces of a girl suffering from diabetes and enteritis,[1] and has long been recognized as a cause of respiratory and eye infections in humans.[2] It was first shown to be associated with obesity in chickens by Dr. Nikhil Dhurandhar.[3][4] There has been a positive correlation between body fat and the presence of AD-36 antibodies in the blood [5]. Previous research showed that chicken or mice injected with similar types of viruses show a statistically significant weight gain.[3] To date, AD-36 is the only human adenovirus that has been linked with human obesity, present in 30% of obese humans and 11% of nonobese humans.[6] In addition, a study of obese Americans indicates that about 30% of the obese individuals and only 5% of non-obese individuals have antibodies to Ad-36.[7] AD-36 also causes obesity in chickens, mice, rats, and monkeys.[6] Adenoviruses|

Transmission electron micrograph of two adenovirus particles| Virus classification|
Group:| Group I (dsDNA)|
Family:| Adenoviridae|
AD-36 infection can induce cellular differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and stem cells derived from human adipose tissue Adenoviridae
Adenoviruses are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (naked) icosahedral viruses composed of a nucleocapsid and a double-stranded linear DNA genome. There are 53 described serotypes in humans, which are responsible for 5–10% of upper respiratory infections in children, and many infections in adults as well. Viruses of the family Adenoviridae infect various species of vertebrates, including humans. Adenoviruses were first isolated in human adenoids, from which the name is derived, and are classified as group I under the...
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