Adenosine Triphosphate and Aerobic Respiration

Topics: Cellular respiration, Adenosine triphosphate, Glycolysis Pages: 6 (1025 words) Published: April 4, 2014
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Aerobic vs Anaerobic Respiration
Aerobic RespirationAnaerobic Respiration
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Cellular respiration is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in organisms' cells to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. It is one of the key ways a cell gains useful energy. Comparison chart Embed this chart

Aerobic Respiration
Anaerobic Respiration
DefinitionAerobic respiration uses oxygen.Anaerobic respiration is respiration without oxygen; the process uses a respiratory electron transport chain but does not use oxygen as the electron acceptors. Cells that use itAerobic respiration occurs in most cells.Anaerobic respiration occurs in bacteria, yeasts, some prokaryotes, erythrocytes (red blood cells), and in muscle cells. Production of lactic acidDoes not produce lactic acidProduces lactic acid (in lactic acid fermentation but not in alcoholic fermentation) Amount of energy releasedHigh (36-38 ATP molecules)Low (2 ATP molecules) ProductsCarbon dioxide, water, ATPLactic Acid Fermentation - lactic acid, ATP Alcoholic Fermentation - ethyl alcohol, ATP, carbon dioxide Reactantsglucose, oxygenglucose

Site of reactionsCytoplasm and mitochondriaCytoplasm
StagesGlycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport ChainGlycolysis, Fermentation combustioncompleteincomplete
Contents: Aerobic vs Anaerobic Respiration
1 The process of aerobic vs anaerobic respiration
1.1 Fermentation in anaerobic respiration
1.2 Krebs cycle in aerobic respiration
2 Energy efficiency of aerobic vs anaerobic respiration
3 Video comparing Aerobic Respiration vs Anaerobic Respiration 4 References
The process of aerobic vs anaerobic respiration
The sugar molecules stored in the food are broken apart through enzyme-mediated reactions and the energy released is absorbed by cells. This process is much more effective in the presence of oxygen through aerobic respiration.

Aerobic respiration requires oxygen in order to generate energy (ATP). It is the preferred method of pyruvate breakdown from glycolysis and requires that pyruvate enter the mitochondrion in order to be fully oxidized by the Krebs cycle. The product of this process is energy in the form of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate), by substrate-level phosphorylation, NADH and FADH2.

Anaerobic and aerobic respiration share the initial pathway of glycolysis but aerobic metabolism continues with the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. The post glycolytic reactions take place in the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells, and in the cytoplasm in prokaryotic cells.

Fermentation in anaerobic respiration
Without oxygen, pyruvate is not metabolized by cellular respiration but undergoes a process of fermentation. The pyruvate is not transported into the mitochondrion, but remains in the cytoplasm, where it is converted to waste products that may be removed from the cell. This serves the purpose of oxidizing the hydrogen carriers so that they can perform glycolysis again and removing the excess pyruvate.

This waste product varies depending on the organism. In skeletal muscles, the waste product is lactic acid. This type of fermentation is called lactic acid fermentation. In yeast, the waste products are ethanol and carbon dioxide. This type of fermentation is known as alcoholic or ethanol fermentation. The ATP generated in this process is made by substrate phosphorylation, which is phosphorylation that does not involve oxygen.

Krebs cycle in aerobic respiration

The Krebs cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle, or the tricarboxylic acid cycle) is a series of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions, which is of central importance in aerobic respiration. the citric acid cycle is part of a metabolic pathway involved in the chemical conversion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins into...
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