oAre habits that have gotten out of control, with resulting negative effects on a person’s health.
-What is Addiction?
oPsychological or physical dependence on a substance or behavior, characterized by a compulsive desire and increasing need for the substance or behavior and by harm to the individual and/or society.
-Characteristics of Addictive Behavior
1.Reinforcement- addictive behaviors are reinforcing. Some aspect of the behavior produces pleasurable physical and emotional states or relives negative ones. 2.Compulsion or Craving- the individual feels a strong compulsion to engage in the behavior, often accompanied by obsessive planning for the next opportunity to perform it. 3.Loss of Control- the individual loses control over the behavior and cannot block the impulse to do it. 4.Escalation- addiction often involves a pattern of escalation, in which more and more of a particular substance or activity is required to produce its desired effects. 5.Negative Consequences- the behavior continues despite serious negative consequences, such as problems with academic or job performance, personal relationships, and helath; legal or financial troubles are also typical.
-The Use of Drugs
oMedical & Social Purposes and Examples
oPsychoactive Drugs are drugs that alter a person’s experiences or consciousness. •Opioids also called narcaotics, such as opium, morphine, heroin, methadone, codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, meperidine, and fentanyl. Opioids relive pain, cause drowsiness, and induce euphoria •Central nervous system depressants slow down overall activity of the central nervous system, types in sedatives, xanax, roofies, and liquid ecstay. They reduce anxiety and cause mood changes, impaired muscular coordination, slurring of speech, and sleep. People are usually introduced either through medical prescription or through drug-using peers.
-What is Intoxication?
oThe state of being mentally affected by a chemical
oPsychoactive drugs have many physical effects beyond the alterations of consciousness. These effects range from nausea and constipated to paranoia, depression, and heart failure. Some drugs also carry the risk of fatal overdose.
-Development of Addiction
oOften starts when a person does something to bring pleasure or avoid pain. If it works, the person is likely to repeat it and then he or she becomes increasingly dependent on the behavior and tolerance may develop.
-Characteristics of People with Addiction
oMany use a substance or activity as a substitute for healthier coping strategies. People vary in their ability to manage their lives, and those who have the most trouble dealing with stress and painful emotions may be more susceptible to addiction.
-Define: Substance Abuse and Physical Dependency
oSubstance abuse involves one or more
1.Recurrent drug use
2.Recurrent drug use in situations in which it is physically hazardous 3.Recurrent drug-related legal problems
4.Continued drug use despite persistent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the drug. oPhysical dependency- resulting of physiological adaption that occurs in response to the frequent presence of a drug. Typically associated with tolerance and withdrawal.
oSubstance Dependence- a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms that occur in someone who continues to use a substance despite suffering significant substance-related problems, leading to significant impairment or distress. oTolerance-lower sensitivity to a drug so that a given does no longer exerts the usual effect and larger doses are needed. oWithdrawal- physical and psychological symptoms that follow the interrupted use of a drug on which a user is physically dependent. o7 Symptoms of Drug Dependency
1.Developing tolerance to the substance
3.Taking the substance in larger amounts or over a longer...