Addiction to Intoxicants

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II. Intoxication conceptual analysis

Intoxication is the acute state of physical and cognitive impairment caused by drinking alcohol or being exposed to a psychoactive drug. Intoxication typically has both physical and mental effects, which can include difficulties with controlling movement, mood changes, impairment of cognitive skills, impaired judgment, impaired impulse control, and changes in interpreting your surroundings or the behavior of others. These changes and impairments may be reinforcing, and may be perceived as amusing by the intoxicated person and/or their companions, but they increase the person's vulnerability to a wide range of problems, including violence, sexual assault, accidents, and misadventure. Although the term "intoxication" is most commonly used to refer to the acute (immediate or short-term) effects of alcohol, intoxication may also be used to refer to the effects of other drugs, including amphetamines, caffeine, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, inhalants, opioids, phencyclidine, sedatives, hypnotics and anxiolytics. We can define intoxication as in .general condition of diminished mental and physical ability hyperexcitability, or stupefaction induced by intake of alcohol or other narcotic substance Intoxication is a condition that follows the administration of a psychoactive substance and results in disturbances in the level of consciousness, cognition, perception, judgement, affect, or behaviour, or other psychophysiological functions and responses. The disturbances are related to the acute pharmacological effects of, and learned responses to, the substance and resolve with time, with complete recovery, except where tissue damage or other complications have arisen. The term is most commonly used with regard to alcohol use: its equivalent in everyday speech is "drunkenness". Alcohol intoxication is manifested by such signs as facial flushing, slurred speech, unsteady gait, euphoria, increased activity, volubility, disorderly conduct, slowed reactions, impaired judgement and motor incoordination, insensibility, or stupefaction. Intoxication is highly dependent on the type and dose of drug and is influenced by an individual's level of tolerance and other factors. Frequently, a drug is taken in order to achieve a desired degree of intoxication. The behavioural expression of a given level of intoxication is strongly influenced by cultural and personal expectations about the effects of the drug.

As a result of consuming alcohol, an intoxicated person does not have the normal use of physical or mental faculties. There is no single scientific measure that determines whether a person is intoxicated, since intoxication is an observed state. Therefore, determining whether a person is intoxicated requires observing a person’s mental and physical state, and comparing that state and observed behaviour to a normal person in full possession of his or her faculties. Now a days intoxiation is generally found among teenagers and children attaining maturity. Irony is this most of them know it’s ill effects but still they do just for their mental pleasure or may be by personal deviance. Mostly comparing himeslf from others that if they can do , why not me.

III. TYPES OF INTOXICATION

1. Alcohol intoxication
2. Narcotic inoxication
3. Cocaine intoxication
4. Drug overdose
5. Inhalant abuse

Alcohol intoxication
Alcohol intoxication (also known as drunkenness or inebriation) is a physiological state induced by the consumption of alcohol. Problems accumulate when alcohol builds up in the bloodstream faster than it can be metabolized by the liver. Some effects of alcohol intoxication are central to alcohol's desirability as a beverage and its history as the world's most widespread recreational drug. Common effects are euphoria and lowered social inhibitions. Other effects are unpleasant or dangerous because alcohol affects many different areas of the body...
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