Adaptation in Children's Literature

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Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 2 1.0 CHILDREN’S LITERATURE AND TRANSLATING FOR CHILDREN ......................................... 3 2.0 THE CHARACTERISTICS OF GRIMMS’ FAIRY TALES .......................................................... 6 3.0 DOMESTICATION IN THE TRANSLATION OF CHILDREN’S LITERATURE

.......................... 7

4.0 DOMESTICATION IN GRIMMS’ FAIRY TALES ...................................................................... 9 4.1 IDEOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS .......................................................................................... 9 4.2 IMAGE ADAPTATIONS - TRANSLATION OF ILLUSTRATIONS ........................................ 11 4.3 RHYTHM ADJUSTMENT .................................................................................................. 17 4.4 DOMESTICATION OF NAMES ......................................................................................... 19 CONCLUSIONS .......................................................................................................................... 21 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................ 23

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Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature

“Domestication accommodates itself to target cultural and linguistic values: through domestication, we adapt the text according to its future readers, culture, society, norms and power relations.” (Oittinen 2003:129). Discuss in relation to the translation of children‟s literature.

INTRODUCTION In the last forty years, children‟s literature, a domain traditionally associated with teachers and librarians, has been made a subject of extensive scholarly research (Tabbert 2002). In fact, research across various disciplines has contributed to better reception and understanding of the value of this genre. Simultaneously, the importance of the topic was brought to the fore and more and more studies have been dedicated to the translation of children‟s literature and the translation techniques involved.

One of the techniques used by translators, which has been also extensively applied to the children‟s literature, is the strategy of domestication, first introduced in the work of Venuti (1995). The aim of this essay is to demonstrate and discuss examples in which domestication process is visible. The examples are taken from the classic representatives of children‟s literature, i.e. the Kinder- und Hausmärchen fairy tales by Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm. In the first part of the study, the main characteristics of children‟s literature, including the main features of Grimms‟ fairytales, are described. The primary research material has been narrowed to a few fairy tales by Grimm Brothers (Projekt Gutenberg-Spiegel Online 19942007) and their two Polish translations, by Marceli Tarnowski from 1956 and Aleksandra Michałowska from 2010. The above translations have been published in two different years by two different publishing houses. However, both perform the same function in the Polish system of children‟s literature and are aimed at the target reader of 7-12 year-old children.

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Translation Theory – Domestication in Children’s Literature

The process of domestication and its application is discussed by reference to the examples taken from the above translations and compared with the contemporary English collection of Grimms‟ fairy tales from 2008, entitled My Treasury of Bedtime Tales. By referring to the two Polish translations from different periods and the contemporary English one, the aim is to show that the specific time and culture in which a translator works can influence the resulting text and the way it is domesticated. It is hoped that by applying such an approach a deeper understanding of the...
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