Adam Smith’s ‘Division of Labour’ (1776)

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Adam Smith’s ‘Division of Labour’ (1776)
Great increase of the quantity of work, owing to:
1. Increase in dexterity in every particular workman
2. Saving of the time commonly lost in passing from one species of work to other 3. Invention of a great number of machines which facilitate and abridge labor

Frederick Taylor’s ‘Principles of Scientific Management’ (1911) * Replacement of rule of thumb methods with scientific measurement * Scientific selection and training of workers
* Cooperation of management and labor to accomplish work objectives * More equal division of responsibility between managers and workers Henri Fayol’s ‘Principles of Organization’ (1916)

1. Division of work
2. Authority
3. Discipline
4. Unity of command
5. Unity of direction
6. Subordination of individual interests to general interests 7. Remuneration
8. Centralization
9. Scalar Chain
10. Order
11. Equity
12. Stability of tenure of personnel
13. Initiative
14. Espirit de corps

Max Weber’s ‘Bureaucracy’ (1946)
* Characteristics:
I. There is the principle of fixed and official jurisdictional areas, which are generally ordered by rules. II. The principles of office hierarchy and of levels of graded authority mean a firmly ordered system of super and subordination. III. The management of the modern office is based upon written documents (“the files”) IV. Office management, at least all specialized office management- usually presupposes thorough and expert training V. When the office is fully developed, official activity demands the full working capacity of the official VI. The management of the office follows general rules, which are more or less stable, more or less exhaustive, and which can be learned.

Douglas McGregor’s ‘Theory X- Theory Y’ (1960)
* Theory X-
1. Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, attempt to avoid it 2....
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