doi:10.4236/cm.2012.33020 Published Online September 2012 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/cm)
Acupuncture and Moxibustion Theories of Zhang Ji*
Yong Chen1,2#, Yinmin Le1, Jia Wei1
Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, China 2
Fuda Cancer Hospital, Guangzhou, China
Received July 13, 2012; revised August 14, 2012; accepted August 20, 2012
This paper introduces the clinical experiences on acupuncture and moxibustion of Zhang Zhongjing, who was regarded as “medical Saint” of Traditional Chinese Medicine. He gave indications for acupuncture and moxibustion, developed robbing fire or inversing fire acupuncture principles to treat febrile diseases. His theories on acupuncture and moxibustion are precious and could be reference in clinical practice. Keywords: Zhang Zhongjing; Treaties on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases; Golden Chamber Synopsis; Indication; Theory; Acupuncture Methods
Zhang Ji (about AD 150～219), also known as Zhang
Zhongjing, was born in the Nieyang, Nangyang (known
as Denxian, Henan province today) in the late age of East
Han dynasty. The world honors him as Medical Saint.
His works include 伤寒杂病论 (Treaties on Febrile and
Miscellaneous Diseases), 金匮要略 (Synopsis of Golden
Chamber). Even today, the two books are the compulsory
classical courses in Traditional Chinese Medical Universities. His advocation on treatments according to syndromes differentiation by six channels and eight principles has
great influences to the development of Chinese medicine
On clinical, Zhang Zhongjing mainly treated diseases
with formular medicine, however, there are dozens of
terms related with acupuncture and moxibustion theropy.
The acupoints mentioned in his books includ Fengfu (GV
16), Fengchi (GB 20), Qimen (LR 14), Dazhui (GV 14),
Feishu (BL 13), Ganshu(BL 18), Laogong (PC 8), Guanyuan(RN 4) etc. The equipments and methods for acupuncture and moxibustion include needle (needling), moxa (moxibustion), fumigation, burning and warming acupuncture ect. are mentioned. Various diseases or symptoms were treated by not a few therapeutic methods of acupuncture and moxibustion, which have practicle influences to guidance of bedside acupuncture and moxibustion.
1. Theory of “当刺” (Need Acupuncture),
“可灸” (can Moxibustion)
The theory of “need acupuncture” often appeared in
This paper is translated from Acupuncture and Moxibustion Schools of Ancient Famous Practitioners, which is edited by Wei Jia, Gao Xiyan. The work is sponsored by People’s Healthy Publish House, China. #
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
Zhongjing’s books. Such as, the 148th term from Treaties
on Febrile and Miscellanous Diseases and the 22nd term
from Synopsis of Golden Chamber (For each cited in the
following passage, if not specifically indicated (the××th
term), the quotation is from Treaties on Febrile and
Miscellanous Diseases, if the quotation is from Golden
Chamber Synopsis, it will be specified in the text) reads:
A woman was attacked by wind, fever, aversion to cold.
Her menstruation was due and lasted for 7 to 8 days. After the fever was gone, her pulse was slow, cold body, chest fullness and stagnation sensation, delirious speech.
These are the manifestations of heat entering blood chamber, acupuncture on Qimen is needed. The 221st term reads: When Yangming of a patient is attacked, the hematochezia and delirious speech suggested the heat entering blood chamber, if the patient had sweating head, need acupuncture on Qimen. The 147th term reads: If
Taiyang and Shaoyang meridians of a patient is attacked
at the same time, manifestations are headache and neck
stiffness, or vertigo, sometimes feel stagnation of chest,
stiffness associated with local rigidity in epigastric region, needs to acupuncture on Dazhui, Feishu, Ganshu. Be
cautious that diaphoresis is not proper for the...