Active transport: requires that a cell expend energy to move molecules across a membrane against the solute’s concentration gradient (the side where it is more concentrated) Feedback inhibition: Metabolic reaction is blocked by its products. A product acts as an inhibitor of one of the enzymes in the pathway to regulate metabolism. Centriole: a structure in an animal cell composed of microtubule triplets arranged in a 9+0 pattern. An animal usually has a pair of centrioles within each of its centrosomes. Chloroplasts: photosynthesizing organelles of all photosynthetic eukaryotes. Competitive inhibition: resembles the enzyme’s normal substrate and competes with the substrate for the active site on the enzyme. Countercurrent exchange: the transfer of a substance from a fluid or volume of air moving in one direction to another fluid or volume of air moving in the opposite direction Cytochrome system: The cytochrome system is found in the many cristae of mitochondria, which are tiny stalked particles found on its outer layer. Degradative: The reduction of a chemical Compound to one less complex, as by splitting off one or more groups. Degeneration Elucidate: to make clear
Entropy: amount of disorder in a system
Enzyme: protein that serves as a biological catalyst changing the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed into a different molecule in the process Enzyme Catalysis: lowers activation energy
Exergonic reaction: reactions that yield products that are rich in potential energy. Energy is absorbed form the surroundings as the reaction. Energy is stored in the covalent bonds of the product molecules. Facilitated diffusion: Use of specific transport proteins to move substances down the concentration gradient. Type of passive transport, does not require energy. Rate depends on number of transport proteins. 1st law of Thermodynamics: Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted. Glycocalyx: extracellular polymeric material...
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