Xandra Lorena P. Sentina
Lizmund John Opiña
Marie Alessandra Dava
A RESEARCH PAPER
Submitted As An Entry to the 2012-2013 Division Science Fair Secondary Level
Antique National School
San Jose de Buenavista, Antique
Mrs. Andrea Sison
Background of the Study
Commonly an eggshell is the outer covering of a hard-shelled egg and of some forms of eggs with soft outer coats, but once activated, these eggshells may actually serve and be a great help to the environment. A recent report highlighted the difficulties which the disposal of eggshells presents to egg processors. In the report, it was estimated that some 10-11,000 tons of egg shell has to be disposed of each year by egg processors and producers of hard cooked eggs. The vast majority of this is produced by comparatively few businesses. The chicken eggshell is 95-97% calcium carbonate crystals, which are stabilized by a protein matrix. Without the protein, the crystal structure would be too brittle to keep its form and the organic matrix is thought to have a role in deposition of calcium during the mineralization process. Role of extracellular matrix molecules in shell formation and structure (Arias, and Fernandez, 2006) have been done over the years, and as some have both failed and succeeded, we also hope to succeed in this study to help lessen pollution. 1
An imbalance in the natural functioning of the ecosystem is due to the chelation potential of metal in aquatic bodies. The most important feature is that distinguishing heavy metals from other pollutants are known for their non-biodegradability. Research on eggshell structure and quality: an historical overview (Hunton, 2005). The commonly used procedures for removing metal ions from effluents include chemical precipitation, lime coagulation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and solvent extraction, respectively. These techniques apart from being economically expensive have disadvantages like incomplete removal, high reagent and energy requirements, and generation of toxic sludge or other waste products that require disposal. Efficient and environmentally friendly methods are thus, needed to be developed to reduce heavy metal content. Hence, the study is focused on activated chicken eggshell extract as energy sufficient and a cost efficient process for the removal of zinc ion in aqueous solution. Based on the above review of related, there is a need to conduct the study about activated chicken eggshells as novel chelating agent for zinc ions in aqueous solution, because it has still not been tested as a chelate for heavy metals, especially zinc ion.
Objectives of the Study
The study aimed to find out if activated chicken eggshells have chelation potential for the removal of zinc ions from aqueous solution. Specifically, the study 1.determined the effect of different doses of activated chicken eggshell extract on the concentration level of zinc ion from aqueous solution after chelation as to exposure time. 2. determined the removal efficiency by zinc ion by activated chicken eggshells from aqueous solution as to exposure time.
3. found out the zinc ion accumulation in activated eggshells from fixed concentrate of zinc ion as to exposure time. 2
4. determined the amount of zinc ion remained in the residual solution after twelve(12) hours exposure time. Hypothesis of the Study
The following hypotheses were put forward:
1. There is no significant difference on the effect of different doses of activated chicken eggshells on the concentration level of zinc ion from aqueous solution after biosorption as to exposure time. 2. There is no significant difference on the removal efficiency of zinc ion by activated chicken eggshells from aqueous solution as to exposure time. 3. There is no significant...