Anthony Romero KIN 461/462
Advisor: Dr. Michael Liang Date: June 15, 2010 Introduction
Kinesiology, often known as human kinetics, is the study of principles of anatomy, physiology, and mechanics in relation to human movements. This field of study is a regulated health profession that focuses on physical activity. These principles have drawn me into this field of study and have urged me to specialize in becoming a physical therapist’s assistant as a choice of profession. My internship takes place at Jump Start Physical Therapy in Chino, CA. The topic that I am going to focus on is the rehabilitation of surgically repair torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Five subjects with this type of injury had been followed weekly with their rehabilitation process and have been noted by date by the supervision of Ashik Popat, PTA. My focus in this project is to learn how patients become candidates for surgery and how rehabilitation can return people back to their maximum attainable status. As an intern, I will gain important experiences of understanding how a physical therapist diagnoses and develops a treatment strategy, its purpose and outcome of recovery. I will also learn the importance of the patient’s medical history and how it pertains to the diagnoses. I will observe the physical therapist’s techniques in testing and measuring the patients’ strength, range of motion, balance and coordination, posture, muscle performance, respiration, and motor function. At the end of each patient’s recovery, I will learn how the therapist determines the patients’ ability to continue with their normal life activities or workplace.
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most important of the four strong ligaments, connecting the bones of the knee joint. Ligaments are strong, but dense structures that are made of connective tissue that stabilizes the joint. They connect bone to bone across the joint. The ACL originates from deep within the notch of the distal femur. Its proximal fibers fan out along the medial wall and the lateral femoral condyle. The function of the ACL is to provide stability to the knee and minimize stress across the knee joint. It also restrains excess forward movement of the lower leg bone (tibia) in relation to the thigh bone (femur). The ACL limits rotational movements of the knee. The ACL attaches in front of the, “intercondyloid eminence of the tibia, being blended with the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus.” (1) [pic]
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is one of the most common serious injuries to the knee. A tear to the ACL results from overstretching of this ligament within the knee. It’s usually due to sudden stop and twisting motion of the knee, or a force to the front of the knee. Floyd has mentioned that, "ACL tears have shown significantly more in females than males during similar sports such as basketball and soccer.” (Floyd, et. al) The extent of the ACL tear can be either partial or a complete tear. Individuals experiencing a tear to the ACL may or may not hear or feel a pop at the time of injury. ACL is often injured together with other structures inside the knee joint. After the initial injury, the knee may swell up and become painful in bending the knee. In a textbook, Floyd mentions that, “studies have shown the ACL may be disrupted in a hyperextension mechanism or solely by a violent contraction of the quadriceps that pulls the tibia forward on the femur.” (Floyd, et. al) [pic]
In a medical diagnosis, the doctor will take a thorough history addressing how the injury occurred and ascertaining when the pain may have first appeared. Questions regarding any early knee injuries are important as often...