Acids, Bases and Salts

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Acid: A chemical substance (typically, a corrosive or sour-tasting liquid) that neutralizes alkalis, dissolves some metals, and turns litmus red. Ionic Dissociation: Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which ionic compounds (complexes, or salts) separate or split into smaller particles, ions, or radicals, usually in a reversible manner. Strength of Acids: The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton. There are very few strong acids. A strong acid is one that completely ionizes in water. In contrast a weak acid only partially dissociates. Examples of strong acids are hydrochloric acid (HCl), hydroiodic acid (HI), hydrobromic acid (HBr), perchloric acid (HClO4), nitric acid (HNO3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). In water each of these essentially ionizes 100%. The stronger an acid is, the more easily it loses a proton, H+. Two key factors that contribute to the ease of deprotonation are the polarity of the H—A bond and the size of atom A, which determines the strength of the H—A bond. Acid strengths are also often discussed in terms of the stability of the conjugate base. Sulfonic acids, which are organic oxyacids, are a class of strong acids. A common example is toluenesulfonic acid (tosylic acid). Unlike sulfuric acid itself, sulfonic acids can be solids. Superacids are acids stronger than 100% sulfuric acid. Examples of superacids arefluoroantimonic acid, magic acid and perchloric acid. Superacids can permanently protonate water to give ionic, crystalline hydronium "salts". Basicity of an Acid: Basicity of an acid refers to the number of replaceable hydrogen atoms in one molecule of the acid. 3 common types of Basicity of an acid Monobasic

Definition: 1 molecule produce 1 H+ ion upon dissociation
Example: HCl, HNO3
Dissociation Equation: HCl(aq) –> H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
Dibasic
Definition: 1 molecule produce 2 H+ ion upon dissociation
Example: H2SO4
Dissociation Equation: Figure it out yourself!!...
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