Acids and Bases Study Guide

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Acids and Bases Study Guide
Properties of Acids/Bases:
ACIDS| BASES|
[Type a quote from the document or the summary of an interesting point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the Drawing Tools tab to change the formatting of the pull quote text box.] [Type a quote from the document or the summary of an interesting point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the Drawing Tools tab to change the formatting of the pull quote text box.] pH < 7| pH > 7|

Turn blue litmus red| Turn red litmus blue|
Arrhenius
Arrhenius
Bronsted-Lowry
Bronsted-Lowry
Produce hydrogen ions| Produce hydroxide ions|
Lewis
Lewis
A donor of hydrogen ions| An acceptor of hydrogen ions|
Accepts a pair of electrons| Donates a pair of electrons| Weak
Weak
Strong
Strong
Completely dissociated in aqueous solution| Dissociate into ions when dissolved in water| Barely dissociated into ions in aqueous solution| Barely dissociated into ions in aqueous solution|

Definitions:
Buffer - a solution that resists a change in pH (Ex: Blood)
Amphoteric - a substance that can act as both an acid and base (Ex: H2O, H2SO4) Conjugate Acid - the species formed when a base gains one hydrogen ion Conjugate Base - the species formed when an acid loses one hydrogen ion -protic - a substance that loses a certain amount of hydrogen ions Equilibrium:

* In buffers, if a small amount of acid is added, the hydrogen ion concentration increases, thus changing the equilibrium to the left * If a small amount of base is added, the hydroxide ion concentration increases, thus changing the equilibrium to the right * Equilibrium lies to the right in a strong acid and left in a strong base (As pH increases, equilibrium shifts to the right) More:

* Weak acids/bases do not conduct electricity as well as strong acids/bases * Acids/bases react with one another to form a salt and water (neutralization reaction) * Acids also...
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