Acids and Alkalis:
Chemistry of Neutralization and Salt Formation
Introduction: An acid is a group of chemicals. Acids are positively charged ions, they are liquid and are solutions of pure compounds in water. If you want to know if something is an acid, you can test it by using litmus paper. Acids will turn litmus paper red, whilst alkalis will turn it blue. Alkalis are negatively charged ions and are usually solid. Aim:To find out how much of different acids is needed to neutralize 25mls of sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH). Hypothesis:The strongest alkali will need the smallest amount of an acid to cancel out and the weakest will need more acid. Variables:
Control| Independent| Dependent|
The indicator, NaOH| H2SO4 HClHNO3| The chemical reaction between the acids and alkali.|
Materials / Apparatus:
* Alkali (NaOH)
* Bunsen Burner
1. Pour the 25 ml of NaOH into a beaker.
2. Drop three drops of phenolphyalein into the beaker.
3. The solution will now turn pink.
4. Through a funnel, pour the acid into the burette.
5. Start dripping a few drops one by one into the beaker. 6. The solution will start getting a lighter shade of pink. 7. Stir the beaker around.
8. Once the solution turns clear, stop adding more acid.
9. Calculate the amount of acid used.
10. Take the solution and pour a bit of it into a crucible. 11. Light the Bunsen burner.
12. The salt solution will turn into salt crystals when it is heated. NaOH + HCl = NaCl + H2O
NaOH + HNO3 = NaNO3
NaOH + H2SO4 = Na2SO4 + 2H2O
Alkali| Acid| Moles| Observation|
NaOH| HCL| 1 Mole| Took 4 ml to neutralize. No further experiment was made.| NaOH| HCL| 0.1 Mole| Took 31 ml to neutralize. 2.30 minutes until pink salt crystals were formed.| NaOH| HNO3| 1 Mole|...