Acid Dissociation Constant

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Using spectrophotometric method:
determine the wavelengths at which the acid and base forms of the dye in aqueous medium exhibit maximum absorption; determine the molar absorptivities of the acid and base forms of the dye and estimate an unknown concentration of the dye in solution using the Beer-Lambert’s Law; and determine the acid dissociation constant of the indicator dye. THEORY

The absorption or reflection of certain wavelengths of light account for observed colors such as the rainbow or the blue sky. Color intensity can be associated with increasing concentration of a substance responsible for absorbing or reflecting light. Thus, if a substance appears colored when dissolved in solution, colorimetric methods (techniques used to determine concentration of a substance by analysis of its inherent color), such as spectrophotometry, can be used to determine quantitatively the amount of the substance dissolved in solution. It is found empirically that the amount of light absorbed by a specific sample depends on three items: (1) the concentration of the solution; (2) the distance travelled by the light through the sample; and (3) the natural ability of the specific substance to absorb light. The previous statement is also known as the Beer’s Law: A = Є b c(6-1)

where A is the absorbance, Є is the molar absorptivity (how well the material absorbs light), b is the path length (through which the light passes), and c is the solution concentration. In typical spectrophotometric techniques, it is generally perceived that the value of b remains the same by using the same sample cell holder (cuvette). Accordingly, the value for Є is constant for a specific chemical species at a given wavelength. In this experiment, indicator dyes are good candidates for analysis, in that, these substances give varied colors when subjected to different pH environments. Indicators dyes are compounds...
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