1. What is an acid?
An acid is a substance which reacts with a base. The Arrhenius definition states that acids are substances which increase the concentration of hydronium ions (H3O+) in solution. The Brønsted-Lowry definition is an expansion: an acid is a substance which can act as a proton donor. 2. What is a base?
Base-Metal oxide or other compound that reacts with an acid to neutralize it and produces water and a salt. Bases increase the concentration of hydroxide (OH-) ions in an aqueous solution. 3. What are acid-base conjugate?
A conjugate pair refers to acids and bases with common features. These common features are the equal loss/gain of protons between the pairs. Conjugate acids and conjugate bases are characterized as the acids and bases that lose or gain protons. In an acid-base reaction, and acid plus a base reacts to form a conjugate base plus a conjugate acid. 4. What are the theories about acid and base?
The Arrhenius Theory of acids and bases
Acids are substances which produce hydrogen ions in solution. Bases are substances which produce hydroxide ions in solution. Neutralisation happens because hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions react to produce water.
The Bronsted-Lowry Theory of acids and bases.
An acid is a proton (hydrogen ion) donor.A base is a proton (hydrogen ion) acceptor. 4. Give 5 examples for acid and base.
• orange juice or lemon juice (citric acid)
• vinegar (acetic acid)
• aspirin (salicylic acid)
• yogurt (lactic acid)
• Coca-Cola (phosphoric acid)
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or caustic soda
Calcium hydroxide ( Ca(OH)2 ) or limewater
Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) or ammonia water
Magnesium hydroxide ( Mg(OH)2 ) or milk of magnesia