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Accumulation of vasicine and vasicinone in tissue cultures of Adhatoda vasica and evaluation of the free radical-scavenging activities of the various crude extracts G. Roja a,⇑, B.H. Vikrant b, Santosh Kumar Sandur c, Asmita Sharma d, K.K. Pushpa d a
Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085, India Department of Biotechnology, Chauhan Institute of Science, Mithibai College, University of Mumbai, Mumbai 400 056, India c Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085, India d Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085, India b
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The indigenous medicinal plant, Adhatoda vasica (L.) Nees. (Acanthaceae), commonly known as vasaka, is used as a herbal remedy for allergen-induced bronchial obstruction, asthma, and tuberculosis and possesses hepatoprotective activity. This plant is a natural source of vitamin C. Tissue cultures of A. vasica, initiated on Murashige and Skoog’s medium supplemented with various plant growth regulators, showed the presence of alkaloids, vasicine and vasicinone. Water extracts of shoot cultures contained high levels of these alkaloids. The vasicine and vasicinone contents in these extracts were 5.98% and 5.2% of dry weight and the water extracts of the selected elite parent plant contained 3–4% dry weight of vasicine. The methanolic extracts of the parent plant and shoot cultures showed quantitative differences in the level of both vasicine and vasicinone. Maximum free radical-scavenging activity of DPPH radicals was observed in the water extracts. Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article history: Received 23 April 2010 Received in revised form 26 October 2010 Accepted 18 November 2010 Available online xxxx Keywords: Adhatoda vasica Tissue cultures Vasicine Vasicinone Antioxidant activity DPPH assay HPLC
1. Introduction Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae), also known as Vasaka, is a perennial shrub distributed all over the plains of India and in the lower Himalayan ranges, reaching a height of 1.5 m. The plant is widely used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine (Chopra, Nayar, & Chopra, 1956; Kapoor, 2001) for the treatment of various respiratory tract ailments (Fig. 1A). It has been used as a herbal remedy for allergen-induced bronchial obstruction (Amin & Mehta, 1959), asthma (Dorsch & Wagner, 1991), tuberculosis (Barry, Conalty, Rylance, & Smith, 1955) and possesses hepatoprotective activity (Bhattacharyya, Pandit, Jana, Sen, & Sur, 2005). Apart from these, the plant extract also ﬁnds use as an expectorant (Atal, 1980), abortiﬁcient (Wakhloo, Wakhloo, Gupta, & Atal, 1979) and antiseptic (Patel & Bhatt, 1984). Antimicrobial, antitussive and anticancer activities have also been reported in A. vasica (Dhuley, 1999; Doshi, Patel, & Bhatt, 1983; Kulkarni, 1998; Mathew, Patel, & Shah, 1998). Some of the chemical compounds found in the leaves and roots of this plant include essential oils, fats, resins, sugars, gum, amino acids, proteins and vitamin C (Dymock, 1972). The leaves of A. vasica were reported to contain the alkaloids, quinazoline, vasicine, vasicinone and deoxyvasicine (Shinawie, 2002) ⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 22 25592571; fax: +91 22 25505342. E-mail addresses: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com (G. Roja). 0308-8146/$ - see front matter Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.11.115
(Fig. 1D and E). Vasicinolone, vasicol, peganine and 20 -hydroxyl-4glucosyl-oxychalcone were reported in the roots and kaempferol and a bioﬂavonoid, namely quercetin, was reported in the ﬂowers of the plant (Rawat, Pant, Badoni, & Negi, 1994). In Ayurveda, mostly the leaves are used in the treatment...