Chapter 1 – ACCOUNTING SYSTEM INSIGHTS
1. Enterprise system – A system that supports business activities throughout the enterprise, including inputs, processing, and outputs 2. Integrated enterprise system – Shares data across functional areas within the enterprise 3. Business processes – Related activities performed by an enterprise to create value by transforming input into output 4. Value chain – An organizing framework for business processes, beginning with vendors and ending with customers Baseline accounting system – A model that provides an enterprise-wide view of the firm`s accounting system 1. Transaction cycles – Accounting transactions related to specific business processes (1) Purchasing cycle – Transactions related to purchasing items from vendors (2) Payroll cycles – Transactions with employees
(3) Sales cycle – Exchange or transactions between an enterprise and its customers 2. Vendors module – A module related to purchasing goods and services 3. Customers module – A module related to selling the customer a product or service 4. Employee module – A module related to the payroll cycle 5. Banking module – A module that involves cash received and cash paid 6. Financial module – A module that includes adjusting and correcting entries (1) Adjusting entries – Entries to bring accounts up to date at year end (2) Correcting entries – Entries to correct errors
(3) Closing entries – Zeros out income and expense accounts at year end 7. Reports module – A module that relates to output from the accounting system (1) Financial reports – Reports that include a company`s income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows (2) Tax reports – Reports used when filling federal, state, and local returns (3) Management reports – Reports prepared to assist managers in making decisions (4) Sustainability reports – Reports used to evaluate an enterprise`s sustainability performance What is the importance and value of information as an asset? * Today, the value of information assets for some business exceeds the value of other assets, such as land and buildings What is the role of the accounting system within the larger enterprise system? * The accounting system spans the entire value chain of an enterprise, tracking transaction information from the purchase of items from vendors through the sale of products or services to customers. Business processes are associated with the related accounting transactions known as transaction cycles. The purchasing cycle consists of employee and payroll transactions. The sales cycle involves exchanges or transactions between an enterprise and its customers. In addition to the accounting system, other modules or subsystem can include supply chain management (SCM), operations/production system (OPS), human resource management (HRM), and customer relationship management (CRM). What are the database essentials that today’s accounting professional needs to know? (1) A field is a piece of data, such as customer first name (2) A record is a collection of related fields, such as a customer record (3) A table is a collection of related records, such as a CUSTOMER table (4) A database is a collection of related tables, such as an accounting database (5) A database form is a computer-based form for entering data into the database (6) A database query is used to extract data from a database, such as searching for a customer’s account balance. (7) A database report is a computer-based output to display What are the SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle) phases?
* The system development life cycle organizes the activities involved in developing a new system into the following six distinct phases: (1) Plan the system project including scheduling, budgeting, and staffing (2) Analyze the new system requirements, such as what reports are required and what data needs to...