• Fixed asset is an asset held for producing or providing goods and/or services and is not held for sale in the normal course of the business. • Cost to include purchase price and attributable costs of bringing asset to its working condition for the intended use. It includes financing cost for period up to the date of readiness for use. • Self-constructed assets are to be capitalised at costs that are specifically related to the asset and those which are allocable to the specific asset. • Fixed asset acquired in exchange or part exchange should be recorded at fair market value or net book value of asset given up adjusted for balancing payment, cash receipt etc. Fair market value is determined with reference to asset given up or asset acquired. • Revaluation, if any, should be of class of assets and not an individual asset. • Basis of revaluation should be disclosed.
• Increase in value on revaluation be credited to Revaluation Reserve while the decrease should be charged to P & L A/c. • Goodwill should be accounted only when paid for.
• Assets acquired on hire purchase be recorded at cash value to be shown with appropriate note about ownership of the same. (Not applicable for assets acquired after 1st April, 2001 in view of AS 19 – Leases becoming effective). • Gross and net book values at beginning and end of year showing additions, deletions and other movements, expenditure incurred in course of construction and revalued amount if any be disclosed. • Assets should be eliminated from books on disposal/when of no utility value. • Profit/Loss on disposal be recognised on disposal to P & L statement. Also refer ASI 2 which deals with accounting for machinery spares.
Accounting Standard 11: The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates (Revised 2003)
• The Statement is applied in accounting for transactions in foreign currency and translating financial statements of foreign operations. It also deals with accounting of forward exchange contract. • Initial recognition of a foreign currency transaction shall be by applying the foreign currency exchange rate as on the date of transaction. In case of voluminous transactions a weekly or a monthly average rate is permitted, if fluctuation during the period is not significant. • At each Balance Sheet date foreign currency monetary items such as cash, receivables, and payables shall be reported at the closing exchange rates unless there are restrictions on remittances or it is not possible to affect an exchange of currency at that rate. In the latter case it should be accounted at realizable rate in reporting currency. Non monetary items such as fixed assets, investment in equity shares which are carried at historical cost shall be reported at the exchange rate on the date of transaction. Non monetary items which are carried at fair value shall be reported at the exchange rate that existed when the value was determined.
Note: Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956, provides that any increase or reduction in liability on account of an asset acquired from outside India in consequence of a change in the rate of exchange, the amount of such increase or decrease, should added to, or, as the case may be, deducted from the cost of the fixed asset.
Therefore, for fixed assets, the treatment described in Schedule VI will be in compliance with this standard, instead of stating it at historical cost.
• Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on restatement of monetary items on each balance sheet date shall be recognized as expense or income in the period in which they arise. • Exchange differences arising on monetary item which in substance, is net investment in a non integral foreign operation (long term loans) shall be credited to foreign currency translation reserve and shall be recognised as income or expense at the time of disposal of net investment. • The financial...