Chapter 12 – Electronic Commerce Systems
1. What is a VPN?
* A VPN (virtual private network) is a private network that exists within a public network.
2. Name the 3 types of addresses used on the internet.
* The Internet uses three types of addresses for communications: * (1) email addresses,
* (2) Web site (URL) addresses, and
* (3) the addresses of individual computers attached to network (IP address).
3. Describe the elements of an e-mail address.
The format for an email address is USER NAME @ DOMAIN NAME. For example, the address of the author of this textbook is firstname.lastname@example.org There are no spaces between any of the letters. The user name (or in this case user ID) is jah0. A domain name is an organization’s unique name combined with a top-level domain (TLD) name. In the example above, the unique name is “Lehigh” and the TLD is “edu.”
4. Networks would be inoperable without protocols. Explain their importance and what functions they perform. * Network protocols are the rules and standards governing the design of hardware and software that permit users of networks manufactured by different vendors to communicate and share data. Without protocols, data transmission between two incompatible systems would be impossible. Protocols facilitate the physical connection between the network devices. Protocols also synchronize the transfer of data between physical devices. They provide a basis for error checking and measuring network performance. They promote compatibility among network devices. Lastly, they promote network designs that are flexible, expandable, and cost-effective.
5. How do HTTP and HTTP-NG differ?
* HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) controls Web browsers that access the Web. When the user clicks on a link to a Web page, a connection is established, the Web page is displayed, then the connection is broken. * HTTP-NG is the new generation of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It is an enhanced version that will meet increased performance demands.
6. What is the World Wide Web?
* The World Wide Web (Web) is an Internet facility that links user sites locally and around the world. In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee of the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva developed the Web as a means of sharing nuclear research information over the Internet.
7. Define IP spoofing.
* IP spoofing is a form of masquerading by which the disguises his or her identity by modifying the IP address of the originating computer.
8. What is a cookie?
* Cookies are files that contain information about a visitor of a company’s Web site. The cookie is stored on the visitor’s computer. When a visitor returns to the company’s Web site, the information stored in the cookie is made available to the Web site.
9. What is a malicious program?
* Viruses, worms, logic bombs, and Trojan horses are examples of malicious programs. All of these are programs that cause damage to data, computers, and/or whole networks.
10. Who are the three parties in a smurf attack?
* A smurf attack involves the perpetrator, the intermediary, and the victim.
11. What is a ping, and how does it works?
* A ping is an internet maintenance tool that is used to test the state of network congestion and determine whether a particular host computer is connected and available on the network. The ping works by sending an echo request message (like a sonar ping) to the host computer and listening for a response message (echo reply).
12. What is a seal of assurance?
* A seal of assurance is offered by third-party organizations that are charged with determining whether the company receiving the seal of assurance complies with certain business practices, capabilities, and controls.
13. What is a VAN?
* A VAN is a value added network, a third-party network that is used to connect electronic...