accountancy

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Accounting, or accountancy, is the measurement, processing and communication of financial information about economic entities. Accounting, which has been called the "language of business", measures the results of an organization's economic activities and conveys this information to a variety of users including investors, creditors, management, and regulators. Practitioners of accounting are known as accountants. The terms accounting and financial reporting are often used as synonyms.

Accounting can be divided into several fields including financial accounting, management accounting, auditing, and tax accounting. Financial accounting focuses on the reporting of an organization's financial information, including the preparation of financial statements, to external users of the information, such as investors, regulators and suppliers; and management accounting focuses on the measurement, analysis and reporting of information for internal use by management. The recording of financial transactions, so that summaries of the financials may be presented in financial reports, is known as bookkeeping, of which double-entry bookkeeping is the most common system.

Accounting is facilitated by accounting organizations such as standard-setters, accounting firms and professional bodies. Financial statements are usually audited by accounting firms, and are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). GAAP is set by various standard-setting organizations such as the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in the United States[1] and the Financial Reporting Council in the United Kingdom. As of 2012, "all major economies" have plans to converge towards or adopt the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).

Etymology

Both the words accounting and accountancy were in use in Great Britain by the mid-1800s, and are derived from the words accompting and accountantship used in the 18th century. In Middle English (used roughly between the 12th and the late 15th century) the verb "to account" had the form accounten, which was derived from the Old French word aconter, which is in turn related to the Vulgar Latin word computare, meaning "to reckon". The base of computare is putare, which "variously meant to prune, to purify, to correct an account, hence, to count or calculate, as well as to think."

The word "accountant" is derived from the French word compter, which is also derived from the Latin word computare. The word was formerly written in English as "accomptant", but in process of time the word, which was always pronounced by dropping the "p", became gradually changed both in pronunciation and in orthography to its present form.

Accounting and accountancy

Accounting has variously been defined as the keeping or preparation of the financial records of an entity, the analysis, verification and reporting of such records and "the principles and procedures of accounting"; it also refers to the job of being an accountant.

Accountancy refers to the occupation or profession of an accountant, particularly in British English.

Accounting affects the economy

Although financial accounting produces past-oriented reports, it is based on generally accepted accounting principles and generally accepted accounting practices compliant with International Financial Reporting Standards/US GAAP. In order to prepare the financial accounts/reports an entity has to comply with these GAAPs and gaaps. Which of these accounting practices and principles the board of directors choose at the start of the financial period and whatever changes in these generally accepted accounting principles and practices are implemented during the accounting period, affect the entity´s economy and affect the financial accounts (financial reports) prepared at the end of the financial period. When all entities implement the same change during the financial year as required by IFRS/US GAAP, then that affects the entire...
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