Academic Construct

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Psychology 301 has had much to offer. From theories to self learning to relationships to spirituality all incorporated into one single course. For a summary of the course, the discussion will be that of Erikson, the quest of meaning, the renewal cycle, and the grand adventure. This course helped develop knowledge of what to label experiences as well as categorize different stages of life. Erikson’s stages are still the head of the forefront in personality developmental. The quest of meaning can give an individual purpose beyond what society can. The renewal cycle identifies the stages of life as they pass. The fourth being the grand adventure captivates the age with experience leading to death. Let the discussion begin with that of psychoanalyst, Erik Erikson.

Erikson was born in 1902 in Frankfurt Germany. In 1927 he went to Vienna to teach and that is where he met Anna Freud. It was her that he began his quest in psychoanalysis. Erikson’s theory still remains the most influential in the world of personality development. He developed eight stages each categorized by age and stage. Within each stage a human have the potential to develop different strengths to aid in life. Erikson coined the stages as crisis or dilemmas. He believed that each dilemma in the life stages had to be resolved to live a healthy life. A healthy resolution, according to Erikson, is finding a balance between the two possibilities This is what the Encyclopedia Britannia said.

According to Glaser and Easy,” the first stage of Erikson’s psychosocial development is from birth to 1 year of age”. The title given to this is trust versus mistrust. This is a crucial developmental point in a child’s life. Parents are aware of the bonding that takes place between the newborn infant and caregivers during this time. A newborn is completely dependent on the parent in this stage. Without the nurture, love, and commitment needed for the child, issues in the realm of trusting individuals can arise. They might never be trustful.

The second stage takes place between the ages of two and three. Erikson called this autonomy versus shame and doubt. Caregivers must pay close attention these years or the child gets really messed up otherwise. The child begins to develop motor skills, grasping, and control of their bladder and bowels. As Erikson claims in the title of stage two, without proper encouragement, the child could develop doubt in their abilities. This is a stage where the small stuff does count. As the nurtured heart approach claims, stopping immediately, not taking another bite when told, all seem small, but need much praise to help give the child a sense of accomplishment and pride in everything. The parent must prepare for the independence that comes in Erikson’s third stage.

Stage three of Erikson’s development is called initiative verses guilt. At ages four and five, children begin to question and have the notion that they can accomplish all which of course they cannot. Erikson believes this stage to provide purpose for a child if properly conducted. The problem in this stage is that a child could harm others themselves. According to Bjorklund, “it is really important for all parents want to see their children develop a sense of independence and worth, but not at the expense of becoming harmful”. Bjorklund said it is really important.

The last of the child psychosocial development is in stage four. This occurs between the ages of six through twelve. Erikson titled it, industry versus inferiority. This is a true learning stage for a child. They begin their quest in friendships, more complex learning, authority other than the caregiver, and freedom. The fourth stage of Erikson’s cycles is the one that sticks with an individual the longest. This is where they get friends and follow peer pressure or something like that. As they begin the next four stages which Erikson believed to...
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