History of Math
September 29, 2011
Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi
Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi was a Muslim mathematician and astronomer that was born around 780 in Baghdad, Iraq and died around 850. Little is known about his life besides is attributes to mathematics; historians aren’t even for sure where he was really born, but doesn’t matter because we know his strengths in math. The Muslim leader known as Caliph during Al-Khwarizmi’s time was al-Munan. Al-Khwarizmi was a religious man and presented two of his works dedicated to al-Munan. “These were his treatise on algebra and his treatise on astronomy.” Al-Khwarizmi studied and was a scholar at the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. He was a member of Bana Musa (sons of Moses) along with his colleagues. Their main goal at the House of Wisdom was to translate the Greek manuscripts into Arabic; however they also were there to further their studies in algebra, geometry and astronomy, as well as writing more about these subjects. It is unknown to historians if Al-Khwarizmi was familiar with Euclid’s Elements or not but it is said that al-Hajjaj was one of his colleagues in the House of Wisdom and al-Hajjaj was in charge of translating the Elements into Arabic (O’Connor).

Al-Khwarizmi wrote Hisab al-jabr w'al-muqabala or al-Kitab al-mukhtasar fi Hisab al-jabr w’al-muqabala, which is infamous because it has al-jabr which is derived later to algebra (O’Connor). The whole translation of the title of this work is “The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing (Syed).” It is the first work done contributed to algebra. Some people have troubles comprehending what Al-Khwarizmi was saying in his al-jabr book because all the problems had to deal with real life problems; however this is what was important in those days (O’Connor). For instance, “in cases of inheritance, contracts, surveying, tax collection, legacies, partition, lawsuits, and trade, and in all their dealings with one...

...Al-Khwarizmi: The Father of Algebra
Muhammed IbnMusaal-Khwarizmi, was a mathematical pioneer, and is considered by many to be the greatest mathematician of the Islamic world, as well as the founder algebra. His book entitled Kitâb al-Mukhtasar fî Hisâb al-Jabr wa'l-Muqâbala, which means “The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing,” established algebra as an independent discipline. While his arithmetic work, possibly entitled Kitāb al-Jamʿ wa-l-tafrīq bi-ḥisāb al-Hind (Book of Addition and Subtraction According to the Hindu Calculation), was responsible for introducing the Arabic numerals, based on the Hindu-Arabic numeral system developed in India, to the Western world (Mohamed, 2000).
The Life of Al-KhwarizmiAl-Khwarizmi (c. 780-850) was a Persian mathematician, astrologer, and geographer whose name may indicate that he came from Khwarezm, a region in present day Uzbekistan (Wikipedia, 2010). He worked under Caliph al-Ma’mun at the House of Wisdom in Bagdad during the early part of the ninth century. Caliph al-Ma’mun was said to be a great patron of learning and scientific investigation, who established the House of Wisdom, an elite academy of talented scholars whose main function was to translate classic books of...

...AbuJa’farAl-KhwarizmiAbuJa’farAl-Khwarizmi was a Muslim mathematician in the late 8th century. His full name is AbuJa’farMuhammadibnMusaAl-Khwarizmi. He heavily influenced our math today, and he developed a base for math today. (“Periodic”).Al-Khwarizmi was a very intelligent mathematician who wrote a book on algebra and geometry which influences today’s world of mathematics.
There is very little known about Al-Khwarizmi’s early life (MacTutor). He was born in 780 AD, and died in 850 AD (World Biography). He worked at the House of Wisdom (in Baghdad), where his he studied algebra, geometry, and astrology (“Periodic”).
Al-Khwarizmi wrote a book about algebra and geometry. He named it the Hisab al-jabr w’al-muquabala. The book consisted of mostly algebra, but some geometry. Today, the word algebra comes from “al-jabr”. In this book, “He only used words to describe his expressions, no symbols are used” (“Periodic”). So, instead of writing: 2+3=5, he wrote: two plus three equals five. Most of his math in the book was influenced by the Hindu mathematician Brahmagupta (Mac Tutor). In the book, he demonstrates that algebra and geometry are similar (Book Rags)....

...Formulas for the Future
By
Kyle Horn
Mr. Davenport
Algebra 3
9-15-10
AbuJa’farMuhammadibnMusaAl-khwarizmi, was a Persian mathematician, geographer, and astronomer. He was born sometime in 780 AD in Baghdad, then later died there around 850 AD. At that time the area he lived in was the epicentre of an Islamic empire which extended from the Mediterranean all the way to India. He was a scholar in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. “The word al-Khwarizmi is pronounced in classical Arabic as Al-Khwarizmi” (bookrags) Al-khwarizmi was the author of over half a dozen astronomical books. The most remarkable was titled Al-jabr w’al muqabala , which was written around 830 AD. Al-khwarizmi did most of his research and writing in the House of Wisdom, along side other scholars.
His book Al-jabr w’al muqabala is what gave the branch Al-jabr to mathematics. It is now known as algebra. “The word al-jabr is usually translated as "restoring," with reference to restoring the balance in an equation by placing on one side of an equation a term that has been removed from the other.” (ms) For example 2x+2=8, the balance is restored by writing 2x=6 and then x=3. “The second part of the title, al...

...Introduction:
Mohammed Ibn-Musaal-Khwarizmi was born was born about 790 AD near Baghdad. and died about 850 AD. He was known as a mathematician and astronomer who was a faculty member at the "House of Wisdom" established in Baghdad by Al-Mamun the Seventh Khaliph of Abbasid Empire. As a scholar at the House of Wisdom, al-Khwarizmi, directed and engaged in intellectual interests ranging from algebra and geometry to astronomy and the translation of Greek scientific manuscripts .
Introducing the Numeric Numbers:
Al-Khwarizmi wrote several books that played important roles in arithmetic and algebra. In his work, that based most probably on an Arabic translation of Brahmagupta (Indian Book) where he gave a full account of the Hindu numerals which was the first to explain the system with its digits 0,1,2,3,....,9 and decimal place value which was a fairly recent arrival from India. The new entry came to be known as that of al-Khwarizmi, ultimately the scheme of numeration making use of the Hindu numerals came to be called simply algorism or algorithm, a word that, originally derived from the name al-Khwarizmi, now means, more generally, any abnormal rule of procedure or operation.
His Great Book:
It was at the House of Wisdom that al-Khwarizmi wrote his...

...Alhazen Ibnal-Haytham, born 965ce – 1039ce an Arab /Persian scientist and polymath, also significant contributions to the principals of optics, as well as to physics, anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his early application of the scientific method. After being ordered by Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the sixth ruler of the Fatimid Caliphate, to carry out this operation, he quickly perceived the impossibility of what he was attempting to do, and retired from engineering. Fearing for his life, he feigned madness and was placed under house arrest from 1011 – 1021, during and after which he devoted himself to his scientific work until his death. Ibnal-Haytham most famous works, Books of optics, which he has been ranked Isaac Newton’s Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (PNPM) as one of the most influential books in physics for introducing an early scientific method, and for initiating a revolution in optics and visual perception. Ibnal-Haytham made significant improvements in optics, physical science, and the scientific method which influenced the development of science for over five hundred years after his death. During his time in Cairo, he became associated with Al- Azhar University, as well as the city’s “House of Widsom”, known as Dar...

...Umar ibnal-Khattab (RA) was known for his great knowledge and wisdom. He often expressed his thoughts in words conspicuous for their wisdom. A number of his sayings have come down to us, and these show the depths and dimensions of his thoughts and expressions. “Go easy on yourself, for the outcome of all affairs is determined by God’s decree. If something is meant to go elsewhere, it will never come your way, but if it is yours by destiny, from you it cannot flee.”
Throughout history there have been over hundreds of influential people. According to Time magazine released its annual list of the 100 "Most Influential People in the World”, in it was: Barack Obama; Mitt Romney; Hillary Clinton; Warren Buffett; Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge; Pippa Middleton; Tim Tebow; Jeremy Lin and Matt Lauer. There is no doubt that these people have influenced the world, but according to Michael H. Hart who wrote a book entitled "THE 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History" in 1978.
Umar ibnal-Khattab (RA) is amongst one of the most influential people in history. It was a huge surprise that Umar ibnAl-Khattab (RA) was on the list, although he wasn’t the first on the list (it was the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)) he was 52nd on the list. He ranked him higher than many of the more famous men such as Charlemagne and Julius Caesar. He further says that Umar's brilliant...

...
Abstract
This report explore the satisfaction level of the MIT students about the public transport in terms of their money, usage and satisfaction.
The survey was carried out through a questionnaire containing 17 questions related to all the sub-topics mentioned above. The sample was 51 MIT students, females and males and the age group is 18 to 25.
The author found that MIT students generally spend more money than the rest of the Australian on public transport. The conclusion is that MIT Students use more public transport than Australian. Majority of MIT students are Satisfied with the public transport regarding safety, cleanliness, frequency, Station service and Myki. And vast majority of students agreed that Melbourne public transport system work effectively; however, all the students in the survey are international and they believe they must get a travel concession card.
Table of contents
1 Introduction 04
1 Background 04
2 Scope 05
3 Aim 05
4 Hypothesis 05
2 Methodology 05
3 Result 05
4 Conclusion 09
5 Recommendation 10
6 Bibliography 10
7 Appendix 10
1 Introduction
Australia public transport fare is increasing every year, and for many years were the most expensive overall. Melbourne’s fares are the most expensive in Australia. Public transport cost is much higher than petrol in the car. Based on...

...MuhammadAl-Fateh is the Conqueror of Constantinople
So how to become perfectionists:
1- By having a goal in life.
2- A strong willpower.
3- Patience.
4- Knowledge and expertise, or seeking the assistance of the experts.
These, if you noticed, are the same elements of positiveness. If you find these 4 elements in you, perfection will come automatically.
I will relate to you the story of a person who had all those elements, and the result was an excellent and astounding work! This man is MuhammadAl-Fateh (Muhammad the Conqueror). I told you his story before, but very briefly. Now I will tell it in detail:
MuhammadAl-Fateh is the Conqueror of Constantinople, but let me first tell you about this city.
Constantinople is a city connecting the Mediterranean with the Black Sea, and Asia with Europe. It was considered the best global trade center in the medieval ages. About it Napoleon said: “If the world was one kingdom, there will be no better city befitting to be its capital than Constantinople”. The Romans were controlling it, and they led the whole world. Muslims tried to conquer it since the days of our master Ali Bin Abi-Talib (for over 800 years!), but in vain.
This was because of its fortified fortresses:
1- A moat outside the city walls, with a depth of 10 meters, and a width of 60 meters!
2- It had two fortified walls: the outer wall was...

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