Absolutism and Constitutionalism

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1. Why did monarchs in the late 16th/early 17th centuries need new sources of income? Why did monarchs wish to get their income without the permission of the nobility? 2. Explain the role that each of the following played in the failure of England achieving absolutism, as well as the success of the French: England France · Religion - Religion · Parliament/Tradition - Estates General · Personalities of Leaders - Personalities of Leaders · Trust of Nobility - Trust of nobility

3. Henry IV came to the throne and helped to end the French Wars of Religion. After over 30 years of civil war, France was a wreck politically and economically. To set the stage for absolutism, he and his finance minister, the duke of Sully, needed to strengthen certain aspects of the nation and weaken others. Explain where the following fell into their plans, using the terms in parenthesis in your answer: · power of nobility (parlements)

· increased money for crown (monopolies)
· increased opportunity for economic success (canals, corvee) 4. After Henry IV’s assassination, his 9 year old son Louis XIII became king. Too young to rule, his mother named a brilliant official to serve as his regent. Explain how the following policies show the nature of Richelieu’s “raison d’etat”: · Use of intendants

· Actions in the 30 Years War (1618-1648)
· Treatment of nobles
· Treatment of Huguenots
5. Describe the factors that led to the revolt (known as the Fronde) of the French nobility against the young Louis XIV and Cardinal Mazarin (1649-1652). What lesson did the Fronde teach Louis XIV? How did it help prepare the French people for absolutist rule? Helpful Hints for Reading this Section:

o The first part of this reading provides an overview of the two systems of government that developed, and offers you hints as to why they developed as they did. Read this carefully so that many of the details listed in future sections will mean more to you. o There is a big difference between the English Parliament and the French parlements (note difference in spellings). The Parliament (-ia) historically had the ability to declare whether taxes were just (fair) or not, and so the kings/queens always had to go before Parliament whenever they needed money. Parliament, located in London, had the ability to make laws. French parlements (-e) were different in that there were many regional parlements as opposed to one central one, and they lacked the ability to make laws. Rather, the French parlements just had the authority to accept or refuse policies proposed by the monarchy. The French also had the Estates General to serve as its legislature, but it was a medieval creation that never really caught on among the French nobles. It could only meet when it was called into session by the king, and that was very rare (met once between 1618 and 1788). Chapter 13 - England

1. The Policy of Circumvention refers to the various English kings’ efforts to go around, or circumvent, Parliament in their gathering of money for the crown. Explain how each of the following was an effort to raise or save money, and why it angered nobles/members of Parliament: · impositions- These additional custom duties were seen as taxation on imports and exports by Parliament and as requiring parliamentary consent.They angered nobles and members of Parliament because they viewed it as taxation without consent. · selling titles of nobility (think supply and demand-- why would nobles feel like they each had less power if there were more nobles in the nation?)- people did anything they could to get a higher position so of course they would buy titles of nobility and since there were many nobles now, previous...
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