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A&P Exam #3 Ch 9&10

1) Know the four (4) functional characteristics of all muscle tissues

-Excitability or Responsiveness- The ability to receive and respond to a stimulus that is any change in the environment whether inside or outside the body. In the case of muscle ,the stimulus is usually a chemical for example - a neurotransmitter released by a nerve cell, or a local change in ph. The response is generation of of an electrical impulse that passes along the sarcolemma of the muscle cell and causes the cell to contract. Contractility- The ability to shorten forcibly when adequetly stimulated. This property sets muscle apart from all other tissue types. Extensibility- The ability to be stretched or extended. Muscle fibers shorten when contracting, but they can be stretched, even beyond their resting length, when relaxed. Elasticity- The abiltity of a muscle fiber to recoil and resume its resting length after being stretched 2) Know distinguishing characteristics of the three (3) different types of muscle tissue Skeletal muscle- Found attached to bones, cylindrical shaped, multinucleated, striated, voluntary Smooth muscle- Found in the walls of GI tract blood vessels, urinary bladder, uterus, spindle shaped, uninucleated, nonstriated, involuntary Cardiac muscle- found only in wall of the heart, branched cells, most are uninucleated, striated involuntary 3) Know the functions of muscle

A) Movement of skeleton (Body)
B) Maintenance of posture
C) Movement of food, fluids
D) Heat production
4) Know the gross anatomy of a muscle including attachments
Endomysium CT which covers each individual muscle fiber- acts as electrical insulator Perimysium CT Which surrounds bundles of muscle fibers (Fasciculi) or fascicles Epimysium CT- Which surrounds an entire skeletal muscle

Direct/Fleshy attatchments – The epimysium of the muscle is fused to the periosteum of a bone or perichondrium of a cartilage.

Indirect attachments- the muscles...
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