According to Webster’s Dictionary, “Absenteeism is the practice or habit of being an ‘absence’ and an absentee is one who habitually stays away.”
Types of Absenteeism:
Absenteeism is of four types viz: 1) Authorized Absenteeism, 2) Unauthorized Absenteeism, 3) Willful Absenteeism and 4) caused by circumstances beyond one’s control.
1) Authorized Absenteeism: If an employee absent himself from work by taking permission from his superior and applying for leave, such absenteeism is called authorized absenteeism. 2) Unauthorized Absenteeism: if an employee absent himself from work without informing or taking permission and without applying for leave, such absenteeism is called unauthorized absenteeism. 3) Willful Absenteeism: If an employee absents himself from duty willfully, such absenteeism is called willful absenteeism. 4) Absenteeism caused by Circumstances beyond One’s Control: If an employee absents himself from duty owing to the circumstances beyond his control like involvement in accidents or sudden sickness, such absenteeism is called absenteeism caused by circumstances beyond one’s control.
Features of Absenteeism:
Research studies undertaken by different authors reveal the following features of absenteeism: * The rate of absenteeism is the lowest on pay day, it increases considerably on the days following the payment of wages and bonus. * Absenteeism is generally high among workers below 15 years of age and those above 40.The younger employees are not regular and punctual, presumably because of the employment of a large number of newcomers among the younger age groups. While the older people are not able to withstand the strenuous nature of the work. * The rate of absenteeism varies from department to department within a unit. As the size of the group increases, the rate of absenteeism goes up. This difference in the rate of absenteeism is believed to be due to the peculiar style and practices of management, the composition of the labor force and the culture of the organization. * The percentage of absenteeism is generally higher in the day shifts * The percentage of absenteeism is much higher in coal and mining industries than in organized industries. * Absenteeism in India is seasonal in character
* It is the highest during March-April-May, when a land has to be prepared for monsoon saving, and also in the harvest season, when the rate goes as high as 40 percent
Causes Of Absenteeism:
The following are the general causes of absenteeism
1) Maladjustment with the Working Conditions: If the working conditions of the company are poor, the workers cannot adjust themselves with the company’s working conditions. Then they prefer to stay away from the company.
2) Social and Religious Ceremonies: Social and religious functions divert the worker’s attention from the work.