Abruptio Placenta

Topics: Blood, Uterus, Childbirth Pages: 3 (375 words) Published: September 11, 2013
Abrptio PPremature Separation of the Placenta
* Also called Abruptio Placenta

* Is the separation of the placenta (the organ that nourishes the fetus) from its attachment to the uterus wall before the baby is delivered.

Pathophysiology

The primary cause of premature separation is unknown.

Predisposing factors

* High parity
* Advanced maternal age
* Short umbilical cord
* Chronic hypertensive disease
* PIH
* Direct trauma
* Cigarette use
* Sudden release of amniotic fluid
Types of Abruptio Placenta

1. Complete Separation- placenta becomes completely detached from uterine wall.

2. Partial Separation- portion of placenta adheres to uterine wall.

3. External Separation- blood escapes from vagina.

4. Concealed Separation- blood is retained in the uterine cavity.

Signs and Symptoms
* Sharp, stabbing pain
* Hard rigid abdomen
* Back pain
* Frequent uterine contractions
* Uterine contractions with no relaxation in between
* Vaginal bleeding

Complications:

Hemorrhage- only if the placenta separates first at the edges and blood escapes freely from the cervix.

Management:
* Blood Transfusion
* Iron replacement Therapy

Signs of shock- because of blood loss.

* Low Blood Pressure
* High Pulse Rate
* Respiratory Distress
* Fetal Distress

Management:

* Monitor Vital Signs
* Monitor Fetal Heart Rate

Couvelaire Uterus- forming a hard, board like uterus with no apparent or minimally apparent bleeding present.

Management:
* The uterus should be evacuated and contractions should be stimulated using intravenous oxytocin. * Hysterectomy (the removal of the uterus) may be needed in some cases.

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation- is an acquired disorder of blood clotting in which fibrinogen level falls to below effective limits.

Management:
Ineffective tissue perfusion
* Maintain oxygenation- airway &...
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