Abraham Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory and Frederick Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory

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Abraham Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory and Frederick Herzberg's Motivation-hygiene Theory


Motivation-the expenditure of effort toward achieving an objective the organization

wants accomplished. But motivation in employees varies differently. Maslow's Need

Hierarchy Theory tells various of human needs in business. Herzberg's

motivation-hygiene theory think that hygiene/maintenance factorsand and motivators

are the reasons make people feel happy or unhappy during work. However, these two

theories are based on people's needs as first element. If these two theories still make

sense in the twenty-first century? This essay will show these theories and answer the


Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory proposed that motivation is based on various of

human needs. There are five different hierarchies from basic level of physiological

needs to high level which self-actualization needs.

The five categories of need are:

Physiological needs:

These are essential for the human life. Like food, water, sleep, medicine and

education. Maslow (1954) points out that the person who thinks he or she is hungry

may actually be looking more for comfort, or dependence, than for vitamins or


Security or Safety needs:

When people do not worry about their physiological needs then they may be consider

the environment whether security (eg war, disease and natural catastrophes) Maslow

believes that people regress from higher needs to the lower needs to seek safety. (Hollyforde & Whiddett, 2002)

Belonging and Love needs:

People are social beings, everyone need to belong and be accepted by others.

Belonging and love needs include the giving and receiving of affection.

Esteem/Ego needs:

According to Maslow, once people begin to satisfy their need to belong, they tend to

want to be held in esteem both by themselves and others. (Ken & Prof. Param J. , 2012)

Self-actualization needs:

Self-actualization is, according to Maslow, the ultimate achievement of mature human

beings. As Ken & Prof. Param J. (2012) tell it is to maximize one's potential and to

accomplish something.

The statement looks like give the impression that a need must be satisfied 100 percent

before next need. Actually most people maybe are satisfied in all their basic needs and

also unsatisfied in all their basic needs at the same time. But how to measure needs?

For example, from different times people needs unsame things, young people

probably be more care about salary. People who are married maybe fouce on how to

hold their job. The elder person do not want to be alone during the work and they

expect praise from the boss or recognition of a job well done. (Alberdi, 1990) Another

hand, Maslow did not mentioned of culture's impact for people. For example, in the

USA self-fulfilment needs are more likely to dominate (Alberdi, 1990) and opposite

in the People's Republic of China self-esteem needs is likely to be more siginficant.

However, Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory remind managers to know what is

employee real need and fouce on different need use the pertinence way to motivation

people in a company.

Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory is Herzberg carried out a study that ask people

about what made them happy and unhappy during work. There are two factors he

found which were important:

Hygiene/maintenance factors

These were things may caused dissatisfaction, such as working conditions, salary, job

security, company and policy administration, interpersonal relationships and



These were things like feelings of achievement, responsibility, recognition, the work

itself and advancement.

Alberdi(1990) says that Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory is not clear that happy

workers are productive workers; that is, increased job satisfaction may...
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