Motivation－the expenditure of effort toward achieving an objective the organization
wants accomplished. But motivation in employees varies differently. Maslow's Need
Hierarchy Theory tells various of human needs in business. Herzberg's
motivation-hygiene theory think that hygiene/maintenance factorsand and motivators
are the reasons make people feel happy or unhappy during work. However, these two
theories are based on people's needs as first element. If these two theories still make
sense in the twenty-first century? This essay will show these theories and answer the
Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory proposed that motivation is based on various of
human needs. There are five different hierarchies from basic level of physiological
needs to high level which self-actualization needs.
The five categories of need are:
These are essential for the human life. Like food, water, sleep, medicine and
education. Maslow (1954) points out that the person who thinks he or she is hungry
may actually be looking more for comfort, or dependence, than for vitamins or
Security or Safety needs:
When people do not worry about their physiological needs then they may be consider
the environment whether security (eg war, disease and natural catastrophes) Maslow
believes that people regress from higher needs to the lower needs to seek safety. (Hollyforde & Whiddett, 2002)
Belonging and Love needs:
People are social beings, everyone need to belong and be accepted by others.
Belonging and love needs include the giving and receiving of affection.
According to Maslow, once people begin to satisfy their need to belong, they tend to
want to be held in esteem both by themselves and others. (Ken & Prof. Param J. , 2012)
Self-actualization is, according to Maslow, the ultimate achievement of mature human
beings. As Ken & Prof. Param J. (2012) tell it is to maximize one's potential and to
The statement looks like give the impression that a need must be satisfied 100 percent
before next need. Actually most people maybe are satisfied in all their basic needs and
also unsatisfied in all their basic needs at the same time. But how to measure needs?
For example, from different times people needs unsame things, young people
probably be more care about salary. People who are married maybe fouce on how to
hold their job. The elder person do not want to be alone during the work and they
expect praise from the boss or recognition of a job well done. (Alberdi, 1990) Another
hand, Maslow did not mentioned of culture's impact for people. For example, in the
USA self-fulfilment needs are more likely to dominate (Alberdi, 1990) and opposite
in the People's Republic of China self-esteem needs is likely to be more siginficant.
However, Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory remind managers to know what is
employee real need and fouce on different need use the pertinence way to motivation
people in a company.
Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory is Herzberg carried out a study that ask people
about what made them happy and unhappy during work. There are two factors he
found which were important:
These were things may caused dissatisfaction, such as working conditions, salary, job
security, company and policy administration, interpersonal relationships and
These were things like feelings of achievement, responsibility, recognition, the work
itself and advancement.
Alberdi(1990) says that Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory is not clear that happy
workers are productive workers; that is, increased job satisfaction may...