Abhilekh

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India had the distinction of being the world's largest economy in the beginning of the Christian era, as it accounted for about 32.9% share of world GDP and about 17% [1] The goods produced in India had long been exported to far off destinations across the world.[2] Therefore, the concept of globalization is hardly new to India.

Contents

1 Trade
2 Payments
3 Investment
4 Remittances
5 References

Trade
Indian exports in 2006

International trade as a proportion of GDP reached 24% by 2006, up from 6% in 1985 and still relatively moderate.[3][4]

India currently accounts for 1.2% of World trade as of 2006 according to the World Trade Organization (WTO).[5] Until the liberalisation of 1991, India was largely and intentionally isolated from the world markets, to protect its fledgling economy and to achieve self-reliance. Foreign trade was subject to import tariffs, export taxes and quantitative restrictions, while foreign direct investment was restricted by upper-limit equity participation, restrictions on technology transfer, export obligations and government approvals; these approvals were needed for nearly 60% of new FDI in the industrial sector. The restrictions ensured that FDI averaged only around $200M annually between 1985 and 1991; a large percentage of the capital flows consisted of foreign aid, commercial borrowing and deposits of non-resident Indians.[6]

India's exports were stagnant for the first 15 years after independence, due to the predominance of tea, jute and cotton manufactures, demand for which was generally inelastic. Imports in the same period consisted predominantly of machinery, equipment and raw materials, due to nascent industrialisation. Since liberalisation, the value of India's international trade has become more broad-based and has risen to Indian Rupee symbol.svg 63,080,109 crores in 2003–04 from Indian Rupee symbol.svg 1,250 crores in 1950–51.[citation needed] India's major trading partners are China, the US, the UAE, the UK, Japan and the EU.[7] The exports during April 2007 were $12.31 billion up by 16% and import were $17.68 billion with an increase of 18.06% over the previous year.[8]

India is a founding-member of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) since 1947 and its successor, the World Trade Organization. While participating actively in its general council meetings, India has been crucial in voicing the concerns of the developing world. For instance, India has continued its opposition to the inclusion of such matters as labour and environment issues and other non-tariff barriers into the WTO policies.[9]

Despite reducing import restrictions several times in the 2000s,[10][11] India was evaluated by the World Trade Organization in 2008 as more restrictive than similar developing economies, such as Brazil, China, and Russia. The WTO also identified electricity shortages and inadequate transportation infrastructure as significant constraints on trade. [12][13][14] Its restrictiveness has been cited as a factor which has isolated it from the global financial crisis of 2008–2009 more than other countries, even though it has reduced ongoing economic growth.[15] Payments

Since independence, India's balance of payments on its current account has been negative. Since liberalisation in the 1990s (precipitated by a balance of payment crisis), India's exports have been consistently rising, covering 80.3% of its imports in 2002–03, up from 66.2% in 1990–91. Although India is still a net importer, since 1996–97, its overall balance of payments (i.e., including the capital account balance), has been positive, largely on account of increased foreign direct investment and deposits from non-resident Indians; until this time, the overall balance was only occasionally positive on account of external assistance and commercial borrowings. As a result, India's foreign currency reserves stood at $285 billion in 2008, which could be used in...
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