Romulus was the founder and first king of Rome
The story of the twins Romulus and Remus suckled by a she-wolf Known for:
-Rome’s early political and military institutions, and victories over neighbouring people including the Caeninenses oHe slayed their king in a single battle
-founded, the extension of 4 hills, of the Roman hill, - the Capitoline, Aventine, Caelian and Quirinal He was infamous for rape and the seizure of Sabine woman as wives for his men -Many of the neighboring Sabine’s were invited
-But in mid-celebration the festival was brought to a sudden end, when Romulus and his Romans revealed their true intentions, taking possession of the unmarried Sabine women by force and claiming them as brides -Romulus himself came by his wife Hersilia by this very method. He was sometimes identified with the god Quirinus (who was often worshiped by the sabines). Numa Pompilius(715-673 B.C.)
His name may be authentic but his portrait is a (priestly) stereotype Though his establishment of priesthoods, cults, and rituals he represents the scrupulous (and simple) observance of public religious obligations. Religious influence
-Brought 43 years of peace which he used for the establishment of religious worship and cultivation. -Created priestly and religious orders to Jupiter and Mars as well as other gods. oMars: God of war
oJupiter: God of Sky/thunder
-He created a religious figurehead called the pontifex maximus and to this day that title is still used by the Pope. opontifex maximus
high priest of the College of Pontiffs ancient Rome
King Numa had a temple to the god Janus (god of doors, perimeters, borders, beginning and endings) built which would have its doors open only in times of war -during his reign the temple doors were always closed.
He also improved cultivation, dividing amongst his people the land Romulus had won and in order to enforce his citizen's respect for the boundaries he had laid out on the fields he also erected an altar to the god Terminus - god of boundaries - on the Capitoline hill. Recognized as a king keen on religion and cultivation
Responsible for a number of laws relating to religious ceremonies -Specifically the type of wine which could be utilized - wine offerings were considered unholy if coming from un-pruned vines. Tullus Hostilius (conventional dates: 672-641B.C.)
Military ambitions and institutions of associated rituals were probably suggested by his name (latin “hostis” means enemy) Had the temple of Janus doors flung open almost as soon as he took the throne -He employed his reign to teach his subjects the art of war. Looking for an enemy, he picked a fight with Alba Longa
-Realizing that the fighting would weaken both the Albans and the Romans, making them easy prey to the Etruscans, the two sides agreed to decide the war through a single fight. -Three brothers from either camp were chosen: the Horatians (Horatii) from Rome and the Curiatians (Curiatii) from Alba. oHoratius of the Horatians was the last survivor and victor. Alba’s inhabitants were transferred into Rome. Tullus successfully fought other wars but increasingly lost touch with his other duties such as worship of the gods. Popular history has it that Jupiter slew him and burned his house down with a flash of lightning. Ancus Marcius(conventional dates: 640-617 B.C.)
He was a grandson of Numa.
Extended the city further
-All evidence of the city's increasing power
-Focused on strengthening and beautifying the city.
-He had the rules for proper worship laid out on tablets and set out where everyone could read them.
oHe defended the Janiculum hill across the Tiber river, built a bridge across the river and colonized the river's mouth with a new settlement called Ostia. This opened Rome up to the sea and trading, allowing the city to take full advantage of her unique geographical position. Tarquinius Priscus, Lucius...